Lexicon – Rilin to English

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  • A

    a (conj) and

    aan (discourse marker)  um, uh

    adekí (adj) blessed, fortunate

    adekíra (n, inan) blessedness, good fortune, luckFrom adekí 'lucky, fortunate' and -ra [abstract nominalizer]

    aés (adj) coldUsed to describe the temperature of things, not the feeling of people

    aésalé (v intr) freeze, become frozen; stiffen with coldThe meaning 'stiffin with cold' usually refers to people or their body parts (e.g. fingers, toes). From aés 'cold' (adj/n)

    aésméta (n, inan) cave

    aésra (n, inan) cold, the cold, coldness

    aéŝtala (n, an) pretty person, attractive personUsed with reference to any gender, usually with an implication of youth.

    aéŝtamé (v tr) make pretty, beautify; get ready, prepare (someone); give (someone) a makeover

    äfak (n, inan)  decorative gardening 

    agé (n, inan)  plot, scheme, plan 

    aǵín (n, inan)  string

    aǵínsé (adj) string-like, stringy, long and thin in shape, rope-like, ropeyFrom aǵín 'string'

    agínta (n, inan)  order, structure; justice

    agíntasty (n, inan) bureaucracy

    agu (n, inan)  railing

    aǵu (adj) blind

    aǵua (v tr) blind, make unable to see

    aǵué (adj) blinding, so bright as to be blinding to the eyesSaid of bright lights or overwhelming patterns or colors. From aghu 'blind'

    aǵûkyíle (n, inan)  spine

    aǵûŵa (n, inan)  rope

    aǵûŵadóǵa (v intr)  stare into someone’s face/eyes 

    aílaí (n, inan) cirrus cloud

    aílaímea (n, inan) marigold flowerLiterally 'yellow flower'

    aíma (n, inan)  meaning, sense, significance

    aímaxo (adj) important, meaningful, significant, carrying weight or meaning; grave, serious, somberFrom aíma 'meaning'

    aípín (adj)  purple

    aípíntse (n, inan) amethyst, purple quartz stone

    aísta (v intr)  suffer, be in pain, feel pain

    aíste (n, inan)  pain, physical hurting

    aístemé (v tr) make painful, worsen, make worse, aggravate (a condition, etc.)

    aístexo (adj) painful, full of pain, agonizing

    äja (n, inan)  song

    äjaŝa (v intr)  sing

    äjaŝala (n, an)  singer

    äjazanre (n, inan)  tragedy 

    alaí (v intr)  return, come back

    alaík (adj)  surprised, alarmed; alert; upright 

    äliñ (n, inan) sapling, small tree, young tree

    alóm (n, inan) choice, free will

    alóma (v intr/tr) choose, decide, make a decision

    alómä (adj) chosen, preferred, desired; special, unique; priviledged; honored; advantaged

    alu (n, inan) ankle

    ału (n, inan)  machete 

    aluí (v tr)  decorate 

    aluír̂û (n, inan)  decoration 

    alukyla (n, inan) Achilles' tendon

    alumasé (adj)  tanned (skin)

    alusa (n, inan)  gold

    amatŝŭxó (adj)  pleading; seeking, searching

    amaxû (n, inan)  hammer

    amé (v intr)  volunteer, be willing

    amera (n, inan) salt

    amerasédó (n, inan) saltiness; the brackish water section of a river (near the sea)

    an (prep) according totypically used with nouns in the instrumental case

    ana (v tr)  love romantically

    ana (n, inan)  sun

    añaík (n, inan)  pelvis

    anakö (n, inan) dawn, sunrise, sunup, beginning of the day, early morning, daybreak

    anala (n, an)  lover, girlfriend, boyfriend, sweetheart

    analem (n, inan) sunset, dusk, twilight, evening, sundown, end of the day, early evening, day's end

    anasé (adj)  in love

    ändeu (n, inan) species of small tree growing in arid regions

    anla (n, an)  lover, girlfriend, boyfriend, sweetheart

    änza (n, inan)  trick

    ap (adj)  silent 

    apa (v tr)  silence, make silent, shut up, quiet down, make be quiet 

    apä (adj)  silenced, shut up, quieted

    apan (n, inan)  prize

    äqurin (n, inan)  famine

    ara? (expression; interjection)  hey, hello, hi, what’s up?

    är̂na (n, inan)  pancreas 

    aŝe (adj)  high 

    aŝí (n, an) species of thrush with blue-green plummageConsidered a symbol of beauty, features in some Ríli myths and literature.

    äska (adj)  silent

    aŝó (v tr)  feed; support, help; endorse; show interest in

    aŝta (adj) pretty, appealing, attractive, cute

    aŝtadó (n, inan) appeal, request; supplication

    ästŭ (adj)  silly, ridiculous, absurd, weird

    ata (v tr) teach, instructSubjects that are taught (topics) are usually in the accusative case, while people (students) that are taught are in the dative case.

    atala (n, an) teacher, instructor, professor; mentor

    até (n, inan)  zeal, enthusiasm, fervor

    atélo (adj) enthusiastic

    atéxo (adj)  enthusiastic

    atsiu (n, an)  lover, spouse, partner

    ätŝóí (n, inan)  technique 

    atŝû (n, inan)  log

    ätŝu (n, inan) agreement amongst parties, accord, truce; peace treaty 

    ätŝukréla (n, an) administrator, official in the governement (civilian)

    äuhexö (n, inan)  scarf 

    äwot (n, inan) type of small purple-red fruit with a black pit

    awu (adj)  upright

    axela (v intr) chuckle; laugh quietly, laugh under one's breath

    axelasé (adj) giggling, chuckling; snide, laughing as to ridicule (someone), making fun of someone/something; irreverent

    azaí (v intr)  go back 

  • B

    ba (n, an)  father

    ba (num, card)  one

    ba (pron; adj)  what

    (v tr)  sip, drink

    baí (n, inan)  social philosophy, creed, lifestyle 

    baken (n, inan)  crater 

    bala (n, inan)  index finger

    balaré (n, inan)  penisSlang, mildly offensive.

    bäma (n, inan)  worry, doubt, stress, angst

    bän (n, inan)  ground

    bäna (v tr)  embed, implant

    bäñgó (v tr) bury, cover with ground

    bänkas (n, inan)  night 

    banu (num, ord; adj)  first 

    banuí (v tr) like, prefer, enjoy; want

    baŝa (n, inan)  task, job, assignment 

    basé (adj) fatherly, paternal, like a father

    baséŝó (adv) in a fatherly or paternal manner

    baŝó (adv) once, one time; only; merely, simply; at one time, at one point, once

    bäŝó (adv) late in the day; in the late afternoon/early evening

    baŝyt? (interr pron; rel pron)  how many? 

    batu (n, inan)  stop, cease

    bäwu (adj)  huge, enormous

    be (particle)  not (clausal negation)

    (v tr) cook, heat food, prepare food, prepare a mealUsed with nouns in the accusative case; to cook for someone, that benefactive noun is in the dative case

    be'a (adj) strange, foreign, weird

    be'ala (n, an) foreigner

    bea (v tr)  miss, fall short of, fail to attain/hit

    béabéa (v intr; n, inan) neigh, sound made by a horse

    beba (pron) nothing, not anything

    bedŭk (adj) different, unqiue, differing, changed

    befema (n, inan)  unveil 

    béǵo (n, inan)  dagger

    begómaraxo (adj) unknowing, ignorant, out of the loop, not in the know; confusedThis does not have the negative connotation that 'ignorant' does in English

    bégómasé (adj)  unknown, beyond current knowledge 

    bekyí (adj) dull, dumb, uneducated, stupid, ignorant, not smart, not cunning, block-headed, thick, dense, thick-headed; unobservant; mentally slow

    bela (pron) no one, nobody, not anyone, not anybody

    belä (n, inan)  flesh, meat

    beleku (n, inan) canine tooth

    bélhûn (n, inan)  torso 

    belu (v intr)  sleep

    beluí (adj)  sleepy, drowsy 

    bélut (n, inan) ground, surface, floor, flat area

    belykyxo (adj) useless, pointless, fruitless, in vain, futile; worthless, valueless, unimportant

    bém (n, inan)  lemon 

    bémŕa (n, inan)  lemonade; lemon juice

    béñ (pron; det)  most 

    benó (n, inan)  slipper

    beptoa (v intr)  recover, heal, get better

    béŕ (n, inan)  frock worn during rituals

    bér̂ (n, inan)  snake meat 

    bere (adv) good, agreeable; nice, kind (of people); appropriate, proper, suitable; pleasant; desirable; likeable

    berebu (expression) please, if you please, if you wouldn't mindUsed to soften a statement, to make it more polite.

    berisaman (v tr)  harvest

    berisamana (v tr) harvest, reap, gather

    beŕu (n, inan) cot, small portable bed

    beŕu (v tr)  guard, protect

    beŕula (n, an)  guardian, protector

    beŕula (n, inan)  uterus

    béŕulo (n, inan) gauntlet, arm guard

    beŕulu (n, inan) bruise

    beŝ (prep) before, in front head, ahead of (spatially)

    bés (n, an)  disgusting person

    bésga (n, an)  disgusting person

    besisé (adj)  random, haphazard

    besiŝó (adv) probably, likely, like to be

    besíxé (n, inan)  lowest position possible 

    besu (v tr)  eat

    besule (v tr)  take in, rescue, give shelter to 

    besxi (adj)  probable 

    bétóna (n, an)  prostitute (male, usually) 

    betŝa (n, inan) crust of a bread

    betsíala (v tr) make dull, make unshiny, unshine, take away (something's) shine or sparkle

    betŭ (n, inan) wrapping bundle for babies, swaddling clothes

    beväjó (v intr) wander around, go on a walk (with no destination in mind, for fun)

    béwä (n, inan)  hymn, religious song

    béwe (n, inan)  rice

    béwu (v intr) chant, recite religious hymns or mantras

    bexŭ (adj)  stupid, idiotic 

    bezaí (adv) never, not ever, at no time, not at any time

    bezaíŝó (adv) usually, typically

    bézap (n, an)  prostitute

    (v tr)  hold, embrace; help, aid 

    (n, inan)  wheel

    bí'é (n, inan) probem, challenge, issue; thing to be discussed, agenda

    bíha (v tr)  rotate; change, make change, cause a change in

    bíky (n, inan)  cycle (of a wheel/physical thing)

    bílûta (n, inan) crevice, niche; hole in the ground

    bím (n, inan)  self-confidence, self-assertion; willpower

    bímé (v tr) enthuse, motivate, give vigor to, envigorate, inspire, rally, build up, build up (someone's) confidence

    bimu (n, inan)  duty, obligation  

    bins (n, inan)  hair (in general)

    bínŝí (v tr)  cut off the flesh

    binsín (n, inan)  tufts of hair that grow on the ridge of the ear

    binu (v intr)  lounge 

    binunaí (n, inan)  lounge 

    bió (v intr)  slide, slip

    bíqi (adj) ugly, terrible to look on

    bíqû (adj) bad, troublesome, problematic, causing problems

    bír̂abaí (adj) debt-related, related to debt

    biŕaíñ (n, inan)  tornado

    bír̂ala (n, an) debtor, someone who holds a debt

    biŕañ (n, inan) candle; parafin lamp

    bíŕara (n, inan)  custom

    bír̂as (n, inan)  debt

    bir̂asa (v intr) owe one, hold a debt, owe a debt

    bír̂asé (adj) indebted, in debt, holding a debt, oweing money

    bíräzä (n, inan)  pectoral muscles

    bír̂ua (n, inan)  lullaby 

    biŝé (adj)  vivid, bright 

    biŝétŝe (n, inan) turquoise

    bísŭ (n, inan)  shield 

    bísŭdó (n, inan) protection; state of being protected or guarded

    bísŭla (n, an) protector, guardian; chaperone, escort; guard

    bít (n, an)  pawn; unimportant person

    bizanû (n, inan)  kidney 

    bízun (n, inan) alarm, alert; a loud sound

    (n, inan)  turkey skin curry

    (adj; prep)  outside

    bóína (n, an) species of large black beetleOften used in Rílin cuisine.

    bólóm (n, inan)  listlessness, lethargy; boredom, ennui, the doldrums 

    bön (n, inan)  sleeve 

    bonö (adj) bored, dissatisfied, annoyed

    bönuí (n, inan)  page; paper

    bönuíŝû (n, inan) paper products, things made of paper, paper items

    bösé (adj) exterior, external

    bót (adj) quick-thinking, clever, fast; competent

    botŭ (n, inan) cellar (place to store root vegetables)

    böwunísa (v intr)  exhale 

    bu (n, inan)  sound

    bŭǵa (v tr)  cut up, chop up 

    buhí (n, inan)  word 

    buín (n, inan)  thought, idea, concept

    buky (n, inan)  quarrel, verbal fight

    bum (n, an) turkey

    bun (n, inan)  foot

    buna (n, inan)  shoe

    bupó (v intr) bump, nod, shake, bob

    bûq (adj)  fucking nuts, batshit insaneVulgar slang.

    buŕ (adj) big, large, great, important

    buŕ (adj)  large, big; powerful

    bur̂ vegaky (expression) congratulations!

    bura (v intr) roll, turn, tumble

    buŕó (n, inan)  volume, amplitude of sound

    bus (n, inan) vowel

    bŭs (n, inan)  sack, bag 

    busí (adj)  proud, confident, assured; motivated, grounded, secure

    butér̂ (n, inan)  noodles 

    butŝíó (v intr) be killedslang.

    byja (n, inan) lace

    bynó (n, inan)  morning 

    byr̂ (n, inan) basket

    byr̂kar̂a (n, inan) type of basket made of water reeds

    byr̂nŭsa (n, inan)  uterus, womb 

    byŕó (v intr)  dance 

    byŕóla (n, an)  dancer

    byr̂ön (n, inan)  yearFocus here is on the unit of 365 days, as it is in Aeniith.

  • D

    da (bound derivational suffix) suffix meaning 'become', usually attached to adjectives or nounsLöndadim 'I became a woman'

    da (n, inan)  rock, pebble 

    (adj)  late 

    dagóra (n, inan)  sacrifice 

    daǵŭra (n, an)  empathy

    daí (adv)  quite, enough, somewhat

    daíe (n, an) paternal aunt

    daíŝebusí (adj) complacent/comfortable from being indoors during bad weatherFrom delaí 'rain', and aŝebusí 'complacent'

    daíŝebusíra (n, inan) complacence/comfort from being indoors during bad weather

    daja (n, inan)  sauce 

    dalaíŝta (n, inan)  worship 

    dalana (n, inan)  happiness, elation, joy

    damaíǵat (n, inan)  farewell, goodbye 

    damu (v intr) be present, exist, be extant

    dañnŭ (adj)  early

    daó (n, an)  grandfather (maternal)

    däp (adj, comp)  later 

    där̂u (n, inan)  jacket

    daŝaí (adj)  lively, vivacious, energetic

    dase (v tr)  pass through 

    daske (adj)  silent

    datû (v tr) beat, strike, hit

    daŵe (n, inan)  stylus 

    dazûxe (adj)  specific, particular; unique, special 

    (v intr)  disappear 

    déǵe (adj) contented, satisfied

    degŭ (n, inan)  fur of an animal

    déínŭ (v intr)  crouch down 

    dekóí (adv) in such a way, in a way as previously mentioned, like that, like this, in that way

    dela (pron)  somebody, someone

    delaí (n, inan)  rain 

    delaí (adv)  somewhere

    delaínó (n, inan) rainbow

    delaínótse (n, inan) opal

    dele (n, an) sister (biological)

    delhö (adv)  somewhere

    deló (v tr)  entertain, amuse 

    delu (adj)  young, childlike; innocent, sweet, kindSaid of people, has a positive connotation.

    dena (n, inan)  primal yearning

    denesi (n, an)  male cousin

    déntsutla (n, inan) amber

    déñy (adj)  old

    depe (n, inan)  home; locus of control or origin 

    dera (adv)  moreover, in fact

    deŕä (adj)  drunk

    deŕära (n, inan)  drunkenness

    deri (v tr)  estimate 

    deŕo (v intr)  splash

    der̂uí (n, inan) pants, trousers

    dérum (adj) brick red, a dark orange-ish red

    despyxa (n, inan)  tissue paper 

    desuka (n, inan)  lively song

    déta (v tr) bring down, make fall, put down

    deŵö (adj)  other 

    déẃöŝó (adv) otherwise; else, in another way or manner

    dexe (prep) beyond, farther than, exceeding

    déxés (n, an) old man, elderly man

    déxû (n, inan)  month

    dexûs (adv) somehow, in some way, with some attributes

    dezenóxe (n, inan)  post, position, job, assigned work

    di (adj) blank; dead; blind; empty

    (n, inan)  wood 

    díbaí (n, inan)  motivation, incentive

    díje (n, an) boy

    díjen (adj) childish, boyish

    díjuí (v tr)  share, deal out

    dine (n, inan)  fortress 

    diq (n, inan)  injury, wound

    diqa (v tr)  injure, wound, hurt

    diqä (adj) hurt, wounded, injured, harmed

    dira (n, inan)  emotional emptiness 

    dir̂a (v tr) wait, wait for, awaitComplements of this verb are nouns in the accusative case

    díŕa (n, inan)  mutual understanding 

    dír̂but (adj)  steadfast, patient

    diŕexe (n, inan) carrotRílin carrots tend to be white or yellow

    díŕóña (n, inan)  laws of social conduct, ethics, morality

    dirûn (n, inan)  oil vase

    dis (n, inan)  peach

    díŝ (n, inan)  peace 

    díŝkanû (v intr) be remembered positively after death

    dítym (n, inan)  thorn

    dízaíka (adj)  ecstatic, overjoyed, in rapture, elated

    do (prep)  like, as 

    dódû (n, inan)  hammer 

    dófi (n, inan)  fact, truth of reality or logic

    dófisé (adj) serious, truthful, honest, straight-forward; literal

    dóǵa (n, inan) camp, resting place; bed, temporary bed or resting area

    döǵe (v intr)  perform gymnastics 

    döǵu (v tr)  rip apart 

    dóju (n, inan)  understanding, consensus, agreement, accord; harmony 

    dómä (n, an)  host, hostess; server, attendant

    döna (n, inan) boot

    döp (n, inan)  fraction, part 

    döpa (v tr)  part, separate, divide, break off; separate wheat from chaff 

    döpóka (n, inan)  political or social dissent 

    doq (adv)  soon

    dóq (n, inan) blade of a weapon; tool (metaphorical), device

    döŝû (n, inan)  penisVulgar slang.

    döŵy (n, inan)  particle, small piece of a whole 

    döxin (adj)  mawkish, saccharine, silly 

    du (adv) soonOnly used in past tenses

    du (num, card)  four

    du (n, inan)  leg 

    du (conj)  while, as

    dŭk (adj)  same, alike

    dûlaí (adj)  notable

    dŭméxe (n, inan)  secret, mystery

    dunu (num, ord; adj)  fourth

    dûnun (adj) bitterIn flavor, in attitude, in fate (

    dŭók (n, inan) club (blunt weapon)

    dupi (n, inan) square, square shape

    dupilo (n, inan) corner, corner of a street, corner of (something)

    duŕa (n, inan)  leggings

    dur̂tŭ (adj)  uncomfortable, uneasy

    dûru (v intr) burp

    dŭsnä (n, inan) upper part of the back around the trapezoid muscles

    dŭsûtû (n, inan) routine, regiment; monotony

    dy (n, inan)  end, goal; destination

  • E

    e'ím (n, inan)  spike, point 

    éa (n, inan)  perfume

    éga (n, inan) anusNot an obscene term.

    égara (n, inan) anal sex

    éǵu (v intr)  grow up, reach adulthood, come of age

    ehuí (n, inan)  enthusiasm, zeal, passion, fervour; delight, elation

    éís (adj)  unconscious, knocked out

    ék (conj)  or, either 

    eku (n, inan)  tooth

    ela'as (adj)  disloyal, treacherous

    élasû (expression; adj) welcome!

    ełeke (n, inan)  neck band

    életek (adj)  sensitive

    élhuí (n, inan)  vagina

    elíset (n, an)  goddess

    ellän (n, inan) beef, cow's meat to be eaten

    elleǵö (n, inan) blanket, covering; protective shielf, barrier

    ém (pron; adj)  few

    eme (v intr)  have sex

    emem (n, inan) intention, desire; plot, scheme; idea; meaninɡ

    emja (v tr)  love (intensely but platonically)

    enhak (prep) before (temporally), prior to, earlier than

    enjen (n, inan; adv)  yesterday

    eréba (n, inan)  lip 

    ér̂ga (v tr/intr) leave behind, forsake, abandon, denounce; leave one’s body (of a spirit)

    ér̂gö (n, inan) corpse, cadaver, dead body

    eríñ (n, inan) increase, addition

    eríña (v tr) add to, increase; replentish, refill

    eríñä (adj) more, additional

    eríñäŝó (adv) furthermore, what's more, further, more, additionally

    erixŭ (n, inan)  triumph 

    érû (n, inan)  stick 

    eruí (adv)  eventually 

    es (adj)  inferior, lesser

    (adj)  crestfallen, sad, disappointed, downtrodden, low, dejected 

    ésgûí (v tr)  dislike

    esitaí (n, inan)  sword 

    eŝra (n, inan)  depression, sadness

    essan (n, inan)  exodus 

    ésta (n, inan)  horizon; poverty of emotion

    esu (n, an)  griffin

    et (n, inan)  status, position

    ét (adj)  sure, certain; strong

    étmé (v tr)  ensure

    éva (n, inan)  nose

    eveka (n, inan)  stream

    éŵaka (n, inan)  faction, party, group of people sharing a philosophy/interest/pursuit

    eẃän (num, card)  fear, dread, foreboding

    eẃas (adj) competitive; bellicose

    eŵókû (n, inan)  sadness, unhappiness

    exŭnû (n, inan)  horn (of an animal)

    ezeŵe (adj)  unhappy

  • F

    fa (n, inan) raw cotton

    faba (n, inan) clothing, clothes

    fabínr̂ (n, inan) closetTypically a small room just outside of the bedroom, sometimes in the bedroom.

    fakré (n, inan)  gate

    fame (n, inan)  style, fashion

    fäñ (adj)  mean, wicked, malicious

    fäñía (v tr) judge, pass judgment; evaluate harshly, criticize

    fäñra (n, inan)  malice 

    fäs (adj) bad, undesireable; evil, malicious

    fe (adj)  every 

    feluía (v intr)  spin 

    fem (n, inan)  veil

    fema (v tr)  veil, cover with a veil, conceal

    feruí:small (n, an)  deer-like animal: small, brown or black, curled sharp horns 

    fet (n, inan)  occasion, time

    fetelha (n, inan) bribery

    (n, inan)  wine

    fífaí (n, inan)  good fortune benefit, good thing, advantage

    fífe (v intr)  function, work

    fífekanûí (n, inan)  pregnancy 

    fífekéŕa (n, inan)  economy, trade system

    fiǵu (adj) busy, occupied; stuck, immobile, unable to move

    fílu (adj)  transitory, fleeting

    filua (n, inan)  fallopian tube

    fíp (adj)  quick

    fitóí (n, inan)  delay 

    fitŭ (n, an)  race, ethnic group, people

    fo (prep) as (equative)Used sequentially: fo…fo (as…as)

    (n, inan)  spiral

    fówa (v tr)  discuss

    fózírusé (n, inan) coil, usually of metal; a metal spiral, a spring; the coiled shape of a snake at rest

    fu (n, inan)  water well

    fula (n, inan) chasm, abyss

    fulu (v intr) flap, flutter, flop

    funa (n, inan) bells (musical instrument)Bells played as a musical instrument, a set of different notes as played on hand bells, often used in traditional Rílin religious

    fûr̂ (n, inan)  saliva

    fura (n, inan)  dance, jig; performance 

    furajen (n, inan) first day of the new year

    fusí (n, an) chicken

    fylhí (v tr)  perfect, prepare, nurture 

    fylû (v intr)  fly

    fylûla (n, an) bird

    fyrû (n, inan)  pelt of an animal

    fys (n, inan) blow dartTypically used for hunting

    fysna (n, inan)  dart gun

    fytfót (adj)  pale grey like a dead person 

    fyŵa (n, an) bird

  • G

    ga (v tr)  give

    ga (particle)  not (individual negation)

    ǵä (n, inan) trough, gutter, trench

    gada (v tr)  give

    gadasé (adj)  effective, working, functional

    gaǵam (num, card) hundredFa sé faö gaǵam zíten 'She has one hundred servants'

    gagim (adj)  perilous, dangerous, risky

    gagisé (adj) in danger, endangered, in a perilous situation, unsafe, at risk

    gaím (n, inan) center

    gaímjen (n, inan) noon, midday

    gajaxo (n, inan)  rape 

    gala (n, inan)  penis

    galhó (n, inan) bone

    galhóka (n, inan)  skull 

    galhótyíke (n, inan) browbone

    gam (num, card)  ten 

    gamnu (num, ord; adj)  tenth 

    gan (conj) but, however

    ǵan (n, an) husband, wedded male spouse

    gana (n, inan)  shoe, slipper

    gapa (v tr)  pay for 

    garóíŝ (adj)  funny, odd

    gär̂ŭ (n, inan)  torture

    gäŕŭa (n, inan)  rage (extreme and uncontrollable)

    ǵasíaí (n, an) horse

    gäste (adj)  difficult, hard; annoying, boring

    gasty (n, inan)  work, labor, travail

    gatöm (n, an)  slave 

    gawynnaí (n, inan) neighborhood, quarter

    gaxa (n, inan)  starting point

    gazu (n, inan) type of spicy pepper native to IzoiTypically dark green in color, small fruits, quite spicy. Used in a lot of cuisine, especially toward the south of Rílin territory

    ge (v intr) work, do somethingTypically used for non-manual work

    geǵa (n, an)  tapeworm

    geǵu (n, inan) cloak

    géís (adj) brown

    géłén (n, inan) urgent help, emergency assistance

    géłu (v tr) rush to the aid of, run to assist

    gélûma (n, inan)  trial, tribulation

    geluŝ (adj)  raw, fresh; sore; bloody

    ǵem (n, inan) lungs; organs of the chest (typically including heart lungs, liver, and thymus gland)

    génalu (n, inan)  liberty to own property 

    genhu (n, inan)  large intestine 

    gensa (n, inan) armpit

    ger̂ (n, inan)  pillow, cushion

    gér̂ŭ (n, inan)  evil intent, ill-will, malice, wickedness, the desire to upset happiness or harmony

    gespe (n, inan)  head scarf 

    gévi (n, inan) beer

    gexpon (n, inan) type of cheese made from the milk of a kiza (a small species of deer)

    gi (num, card)  five

    gígó (v intr) hiccup

    gila (n, inan) art of arranging objects, art of physical composition (of items)

    gílaíñ (n, inan) lightning

    gílaíñkö (n, inan) strike of lightning, lightning strike

    gilu (v tr)  taste 

    ǵilû (n, inan) strainer, sieveBe pšykí ly sé ǵilûet pato be fa umaé. ‘You mustn’t use that strainer, it’s not comfortable to do so’

    giluja (n, inan)  taste buds

    ginu (num, ord; adj)  fifth

    girŭ (v intr) dig

    girŭs (n, inan) shovel, spade; spoon (usually a large serving spoon)

    gíŝö (v tr)  train, prepare 

    gíu (n, inan) sand dollar

    gíumím (n, inan) areola

    gizwó (v tr)  move, make move, replace, put somewhere else 

    go (n, an) attendant, server, helper; assistant, aide

    (v intr/tr)  take; have; have taken

    (v intr) complain, bitch, gripe, groan, grump, moan, be irateSlang.

    góǵó (n, inan)  crime 

    góǵum (n, an)  criminal person

    göky (n, inan)  rant, fit, outburst

    gölhañ (adj) normal, typical, regular, expected

    góm (n, inan)  mind

    göm (adj)  seething, brooding

    ǵom (n, inan) knot, a wood burl; a fist; a tangle; a fruit pit

    góma (v tr)  know 

    góma (v intr/tr)  think, believe, hold as true based on logical reasoning

    ǵoma (v tr) tie in a knot, make (something) into a knot, put a knot in

    gómaky (n, inan)  thought (individual idea, instance of thinking); brainchild

    gómara (n, inan)  thought, thinking

    gómí (adj)  reasonable, sensible, wise

    gómsé (adj) intellectual

    gón (n, inan)  drum

    goni (n, inan)  sexual intercourse

    goqa (v intr)  have sex

    gûǵa (v intr) wage a battle, do battle, fight in a battle

    gûǵä (n, inan) battle

    gulí (adj)  upside-side-down 

    gulíómina (adj)  cynical, world-weart, jaded

    gureŝ (n, inan)  lamps or candles used during ritual 

    gûto (n, inan) algae

    gûtzûǃ… (interjection)  oh no…

    guzun (n, an)  stupid, violent man, barbarian, brute 

  • H

    hakŭ (n, inan)  gateway; doorway; threshold 

    hakŭs (n, inan) door

    han? (discourse marker)  what? huh? 

    hapé (v tr)  generate, conjure up

    haqae (n, inan)  fireplace, hearth

    haqaesé (adj) cozy, snuggly, cuddly, warmCan be applied to people, animals, or places/environments

    hara (v intr)  rise

    hära (n, an)  white fish

    hare (v tr)  raise

    has (n, inan)  mark, scratch; sign, symbol

    heftolû (n, inan) letharɡy, melancholy, apathy, listlessness, ennui

    heftolûxo (adj) lethargic, melancholic, apathetic, listless, full of ennui

    hely (expression, discourse marker, adv)  yes; indeed; that’s true 

    hema (n, inan)  millennium 

    héó (v tr)  frighten, cause to feel fear 

    héó (v intr/tr)  yell, call for

    héósé (adj) scared, afraid, frightened

    héósé (adj)  frightening, scary

    her̂a (v intr)  laugh 

    héŕo (num) one million, million

    héŝeǵe (n, inan) corn bread; a porridge made from maize

    hesia (v intr)  rest, recuperate

    hílha (n, inan)  middle finger

    hílŭ (n, inan)  flute

    híluí (n, inan)  surface of liquid; surface tension 

    hílŭla (n, an)  flautist

    hílŭzû (n, inan)  waist 

    hiñu (n, inan)  root; origine, source; fingers (poetic)

    hírat (adj)  extreme 

    híse (n, inan) response, answer

    hísea (v intr)  respond, answer 

    histä (v tr) avoid, abstain from (food, some activity, etc.)

    histŭnû (v intr)  lie, tell a known falsehood 

    hítóí (adj)  secluded, hidden 

    hívín (adj) extremely precious, highly treasured, greatly desired

    hivizuña (adj) furious, extremely angry, wrathful

    hizän (n, inan) cement

    (adj) good, kind, sweetSaid of people

    (adj)  well, sound, sane

    hóe (n, inan)  paper 

    hokoí (n, inan)  expedition, trip, mission 

    hón (n, inan)  fist

    höñ (n, inan) amuet, ritualistic object, fetish

    hóna (v tr) knead (dough); punch with the fist; hit, beat, clobber (someone)

    hóntä (n, inan)  social gathering, usually of good friends

    hóre (adj)  difficult, hard

    hóŝa (n, inan)  practice, discipline, study, art 

    hoŝí (v tr)  force

    hösma (n, inan) anus, buttholeSlang but less offensive than sít.

    hózéí (n, inan)  justice; rightness; order

    hózéísé (adj) just, right; true; honest; good, upright, moral, ethicalCan be said of people, acts, behavior, laws, etc.

    hun (adj)  deep

    hunr̂ (n, inan)  thick fog

    huŝ (n, inan)  fort

    hŭxe (n, inan)  moss 

    hŭxetse (n, inan) peridot

    hyn (n, inan)  newborn

    hyzû (adv)  enough

  • I

    í (v intr)  look

    í'a (n, an)  insect

    ídó (n, inan)  sight, vision, view

    ífa (adj)  narrow

    íǵíka (n, inan) kind of spicy hard alcohol

    íha (n, inan)  plan, idea 

    íhítóía (n, an)  spy 

    íka (n, inan)  money, cash

    íkala (n, inan)  resources, means, wherewithal

    íkalaí (n, inan)  income, revenue, profit, gain

    ikäma (adj)  pinkish red

    íkaxo (adj)  wealthy, rich

    íłä (n, inan)  hallway

    ílaja (n, inan)  hope, belief in the future; forward-looking mindset

    íłe (interjection)  no (emphatic, formal)

    ílét (n, inan)  shin

    íleẃû (n, inan)  eyelid

    ílha (v tr)  explain

    ím (n, inan)  eye

    imä (n, inan) brass

    ímó (n, inan)  eyelash

    imódó (n, inan)  sex

    ímóka (n, inan)  hair of the head as single entity

    ímór̂ó (n, inan)  hairbrush

    impua (v intr/tr) pat, knead, softly step on, pad on, squish with the feetGómalim kó ónälí impua dekóí gan kurûkap bí pílŭset métónala; möxös bíqû. ‘I know you like to knead like that but the paint on the ceiling is drying and the smell is bad’

    ímuí (n, inan)  tear; teardrop; drop shape 

    ímwa (v intr)  focus, concentrate

    íñä (n, inan) sweets, candy, something that has been sweetened or made sweet (typically with honey or syrup)

    índa (v tr)  descry

    ínó (n, inan) color

    íñó (n, inan) candy, sweets

    íñó (n, inan)  sugar

    inóra (v intr)  have sex

    íntsa (adj)  pretty, attractive

    íñŭ (v tr)  scratch; destroy

    ínŭga (adj)  tentatively satisfied/accepting 

    ínẃa (n, inan)  purpose

    ira (adv)  still, nevertheless 

    íra (n, inan)  perspective

    íra (n, inan)  sight, vision, view 

    íräja (v intr)  grow, get biggerUsually not used with reference to people

    íre (v intr)  surrender, yield, submit

    íruse (adj)  young, youthfulSaid of people.

    ís (n, inan) scene, view; vista

    íŝ (n, inan)  under dress

    íŝíkän (n, inan)  group, association, society, party

    ískedó (n, inan)  height 

    ískesé (adj)  tall, high

    issé (v intr) continue, keep going

    ítä (n, inan) arrow; hand on a clockAs a weapon, not a shape in general

    ítäla (n, inan)  middle finger

    ítŝa (n, inan) chance, luck

    ítŝasé (adj) lucky, fortunate

    itsí (adj) cool, slightly coldSaid of the temperature of things or of weather, never of the feeling of people.

    ítyíke (n, inan)  eyebrow

    íŵa (v tr)  show, display; present, introduce; spread out

    íŵua (v tr) accept, take inCan be used with things like gifts, responsibilities, situations, people, also used with children in the sense of "adopt"/"take in to care for".

    iŵûŝa (n, inan)  reeds, grasses

    iẃûŝatse (n, inan) malachite

    ízna (adj)  possible

  • J

    ja (v tr)  know of; be familiar with  

    jäsoma (n, an) demon

    jaxo (n, inan)  violence; killing; chaos; terror 

    je (n, inan) spleen

    je (n, inan)  wrist Specifically refers to the joint.

    jelemu (n, inan)  death day 

    jen (n, inan)  day

    jení (num, card)  thousand

    jentoí (adj)  easy, “no problem”

    jeqra (adj)  destitute; broke; poor 

    jéra (v tr)  win, earn

    jere (n, inan) carpal tunnel syndrome, pain of the joints, chronic joint pain borne of repetitive action

    jeróñ (n, inan)  devotion, loyalty

    jesé (adj) fiery, hot-headed, easily angered, irrationally angry

    jeŝó (adv) early in the day

    ji (n, an) child

    jidelu (n, an)  fetus

    jir̂i (n, inan) child's room in a house

    (v tr)  need

    (prep) behind (in space)

    jóekunla (n, inan) alveolar ridge

    jókr̂ (n, inan) cone, cone shape; cone from a coniferous tree

    jórea (v tr) name, call

    jóŝû (v intr)  walk

    jóŝûzu (n, inan)  effort, striving, attempt

    jûí (v intr)  feel uncertain, be doubtful

    jula (n, inan)  thumb

    julabetŝa (n, inan)  empty political rhetoric

    julale (n, inan) thimble

    juzim (n, inan)  hip 

  • K

    ka (n, inan) shadow, shade

    ka (adj) large, big

    ka (prep)  during 

    ka (n, inan)  head

    ka (prep)  in, at (used in non-physical contexts); during 

    kaǵé (adj) main, base; basic; true; original, first

    kahaí (v intr)  scream, screech

    kaí (n, inan)  fire

    kaí'y (v tr)  reinstate, restore, put back

    kaíbaŝa (n, inan) vocal cords, vocal folds

    kaíbu (n, inan) voice

    kaíbuŕ (n, inan) wildfire

    kaídí (n, inan) wood

    kaíja (v intr) sparkle, burn, blaze, glow, produce a fiery light

    kaíji (n, inan) spark, beginning of a fire

    kaíkr̂ŭ (n, inan)  warm light; stained glass; light shone through translucent color 

    kaílóí (n, inan)  wildfire

    kaína (n, inan) arson, illegal burning

    kaíñûr̂ (n, inan)  throat 

    kaíolum (n, inan) forge

    kaíóminado (n, inan)  electricity 

    kaípéxö (n, inan)  hotel, inn

    kaípi (n, inan) coal

    kaíŝé (n, inan) large piece of wood used for firewood

    kaísqa (v tr) destroy utterly, annihilate

    kaíta (adj) abhorrent, despicable, heinous, awful, terrible, disgusting

    kaíŵa (v tr)  separate, divide, cut in two 

    kaíŵä (n, inan)  fork 

    kaíẃy (n, inan) kindling, small piece of wood used for firewood

    käkä (v intr; n, inan) quack (the sound made by a duck)

    kala (n, inan)  stripe 

    kale (n, inan)  melon 

    kälí (n, inan) coin

    kälo (v intr/tr)  explode, blow up 

    kälota (n, inan) burst, explosion

    kalum (n, inan)  world

    kälŭva (n, inan) disc

    kamelan (n, inan)  scalp

    kamí (adj) blue

    kamír̂û (n, inan) bruise

    käns (n, an/inan) remnant, leftover; ashes of something that has burned away; a corpse; husk of a plant; leftover seed of a fruit that was eaten; an abandoned house; a ghost town; an orphan

    känsoma (n, an) ghost, spirit of the dead left in the world of the livingFa sé zansakyn ŝyta sén, lan köbaapen ẃí känsomanet--be óréíŝatapky sées líet. "There have been many murders here, so a few ghosts may try to come around--may it not trouble you."

    kanû (v tr)  fill

    kanûí (adj)  full; pregnant; intelligent

    kanûínusé (adj)  pregnant 

    kaqut (n, an)  servant

    kaŕa (n, inan)  weapon 

    kaŕaí (v tr)  equip

    karilo (adj) elegant, graceful, beautiful, classically beautiful, timelessly beautifulObviously this is by Rílin cultural standards

    käŕŭ (n, inan) conflict, trouble, discord, dissent, disruption, strife

    kas (n, inan) time, period, period of time, phase of time

    kas (adj)  dark, shaded 

    käs (adj) direct, straight, straightfoward (in manner)

    käs (n, inan)  thread for bookbinding 

    kasaí (n, inan)  forehead 

    kasar̂ (adj) perfect, complete

    kasji (n, inan) twin, twin person, twin child

    kaŝó (adv) twice, two times

    katré (v tr)  serve

    kavéjaky (n, inan) an episode of caffeine consumption (“a brightening of the head”)

    kavéjala (n, inan) the effect of caffeine (literally “the head brightener”)

    kavót (num) billion, one billion

    kazexû (n, inan)  profound feeling of loathing

    ke (n, inan)  lettuce

    (n, inan) forearm, arm from the wrist bone to the elbowL

    kelu (n, inan)  neck 

    kéña (v intr)  survive, endure

    kéñet (n, inan)  endurance, survival

    képŝ (n, inan)  dilemma

    kéŕa (v tr)  trade

    kéŕanaí (n, inan)  market 

    kér̂u (v intr)  step forward; offer oneself 

    kér̂umí (n, inan) alcohol (for drinking)By itself it can imply a hard distilled liquor, unless paired with other words to specify otherwise.

    keŝ (n, inan)  tea (standard variety from the south of Rilin lands) 

    keŝnot (n, inan)  tangle, mass; mess 

    keŝnotä (adj)  drunk

    keŝnotära (n, inan)  drunkenness

    ki (v intr)  stay, remain

    (v intr)  scribble (write) 

    (num, card)  two 

    kíbina (n, inan) species of rabbit native to the Izoi continent

    kíekíe (v intr; n, inan) the sound made by a small lizard native to Izoi

    kíkík (adj)  current, running, present

    kílót (num) trillion, one trillion

    kílŭe (adj) complex, complicated, many-faceted, not simple; tangled; alive

    kímu (n, inan) crimp or kink (e.g. in some material)

    kínu (num, ord; adj)  second

    kípa (v intr) live, inhabit somewhereUsed with nouns in the instrumental case, often with the preposition ó (in, at)

    kípas (n, inan) village, town

    kíqo (v intr) play, play around, frolice

    kiré (n, inan) south

    kíŕi (v tr)  draw 

    kíŕiky (n, inan)  drawing

    kis (n, inan) bee, honeybee

    kis (adj)  slender, gracile

    kísavé (v tr) snap up, snap closed; clasp

    kisra (n, inan)  curves of the body, especially female body 

    kízû (n, inan) point, sharp end

    ko (v intr)  tilt the head, lean to the side 

    (v tr)  intend, mean 

    (prep)  to, toward, into (moving toward location) 

    (v intr) arrive; happen, come to pass

    (v tr)  push 

    kóda (adj)  lucky, fortunate; happy 

    kögó (v tr)  stun, strike, paralyze

    kóhéí (n, inan)  range

    kóí (interr pron; rel pron)  how (what way/manner)

    kóín (n, an)  female cousin

    koko (v intr; n, inan) bark, arf (sound made by a dog)

    kókoni (v intr) bet, gamble

    kókonila (n, an)  gambler

    kołé (v tr) sail, conduct a ship

    kółe (adj) mucky, muddy

    kołéle (v intr) sail, move, floatA vessel of some kind is implied here, but it is an intransitive verb, so no object is taken. Cf English "I'm sailing"

    kólun (n, inan) crevice, niche; tunnel, underground passage

    kon (adj)  recent

    konŝó (adv)  recently, lately

    konu (n, inan)  pine tree

    kopíñ (n, inan) a hole that is put in some other object (e.g. the eye of a needle)

    korí (n, inan)  effect

    koría (v tr) affect, change, cause a change in something else, influence

    koríasé (adj)  effective, efficacious 

    kóru (v intr)  glimmer, scintillate 

    kösa (v tr)  defy

    koŝí (n, inan) thanks, gratitude, gratefulness

    koŝí (expression) thank you, thanksIntensified form is bere koŝíKoŝí ró bí lepela. 'Thank you for the apple'

    koŝía (v intr) express thanks, thank, express gratitude

    koŝíxo (adj) grateful, thankful

    koŝíxora (n, inan) thankfulness, gratitude, gratefulness

    kósóí (v intr/tr)  join, enlist, enroll

    köŝû. (n, inan)  soft material, cotton, flax, etc. 

    kótûñ (n, inan) bow (tool/weapon)

    kóxa (n, inan)  hard alcohol

    kraíña (v tr) bite

    kré (v tr)  keep, retain

    kréla (n, inan) bucket, pail

    kren (n, inan)  point, place; position; pose of the body or figure

    kréûtû (n, inan) action taken for long-term benefit

    kríta (n, inan)  logic, reason

    krítaí (v tr)  reason with, work out logically; debate, argue 

    krítaxo (adj)  logical, rational 

    krö (adj)  long (time) 

    kröŝó (adv)  for a long time 

    krövím (n, an) aɡent, operative; actor (of some action), doer; player (sports, music, game)

    krövu (v tr/intr) act, carry out (order, plan); play (game, music, sports); affect a change, do something

    kru (v tr)  threaten

    kr̂ŭ (n, inan)  warmth exuded from light

    kryhû (v intr)  fall 

    kryhûle (v tr)  release, let go; provide with privileges; act leniently toward

    kryhûmöske (n, inan) hail (weather effect)

    kryẃa (v intr) collapse, dissolve, fall to pieces, disintegrate

    kŝalha (adj)  muddy, dirty

    ksata (v tr) bind, strap down

    ksatäja (n, an)  prisoner

    ksatala (n, inan)  leather lace/thong for binding

    kse (v tr)  make, create 

    kŝet (adj)  tight 

    kso (adj) correct, right, true; straight; proper, appropriate

    ksuŕa (n, inan)  road, path, way

    ku (v intr) droop, sag, hang down

    (n, inan)  left (direction)

    kua (n, inan)  star

    kuala (n, inan) constellation of stairs, pattern of stars in the sky

    kŭeǵû (n, inan) intuitive or instinctual premonition

    kuíkä (n, inan)  skirmish, brawl

    kulí (n, an) wife, female spouse; lady of the house

    kûlí (v intr)  run

    kûlídexe (v intr) run away, escape

    kulis (n, inan)  hair (single strand)

    kûlör̂a (v intr) tiptoe, walk very silently, sneak

    kulós (n, inan)  hill

    kûlu (v intr) compete, be competitive

    kûlusé (adj) competitive

    kŭnä (n, inan) thing, object; subject, matter, issue; topic; title, name

    kûqe (n, inan)  shitty little place/dwelling, shithole, dumpVulgar slang.

    kurû (v intr)  dry up

    kûs (n, inan) belt; strap

    kuŝtû (n, inan)  squash (vegetable) 

    kusu (n, inan)  sternum 

    kût (n, inan) brothel; hovel, dumpSlang

    kuxu (v intr) hoot, make the sound of an owl

    kŭzû (adj)  versatile; ambidextrous

    ky (prep) because of, due to, on account of

    kyí (adj) animated, lively; moving, alive; awake; intelligent, sapient; knowing; seeing; wise

    kyíla (n, inan)  life

    kyílaí (v intr)  live, be alive 

    kyílala (n, an) parent, progenitor, originator, giver of life

    kyílamé (v tr) give life, resuscitate, revive; save the life of

    kyílanaí (n, inan) home, dwelling, living space

    kyílasé (adj)  vivacious, lively; vivid, bright (color, etc.) 

    kyílaséŝó (adv) merrily, livelily in a lively manner; brightly, vividly

    kyílaxo (adj)  living, alive 

    kyíle (n, inan)  mind

    kykeñ (n, inan) unjustified or undeserved hatred or resentment toward another person; unfair grudge

    kyñ (n, inan)  support 

    kyp (adj) arid, dry (said of climates)

    kypat (n, inan) aridity, dryness (of climate)

    kypnaí (n, inan) desert, arid region

    kypnaíbaí (adj) of or relating to a desert; desert-like, like a desert

    kys (n, inan) chest (of the body)

    kyŝŵä (adj) clued in, in the know, wise, savvy

  • L

    la (interjection)  no (shortening from laka)

    la (n, an)  person

    la (n, inan)  sorrow

    la (interr pron; rel pron)  who

    (particle)  interrogative particle Placed as the end of clauses to make an indicative clause interrogative.Pantûbap bí teet ró ptela famu lä? 'Is he trying to remove the knife from her back?'

    laha (n, inan)  meditation 

    laí (v intr) come

    laí (interr pron; rel pron)  why

    laíe (conj) so that, in order for, in order that, so

    laík (n, inan)  nipple 

    laíkaíñ (n, inan) adam's apple

    laíkin (adj)  former 

    laíla (v tr) start, begin, commence

    laílaí (n, inan) appendix (organ)

    laíle (n, inan) beginning, start, starting point

    laílé (v tr/intr) begin, start, commenceCan be used with other verbs or with nouns

    laísé (v intr)  enter, come in

    laka (interjection)  noNegative statement: "No"; sometimes shortened to la

    lalaí (n, inan)  laugh; the sound of bells

    lalatû (n, inan)  hilarity, comic quality, funniness 

    lälhí (n, inan)  garters worn just above the knee

    lan (conj) so, therefore, for that reason, for this reason

    lante (n, inan)  demise, death, decay

    laraí (v intr) rattle, shake; have a seizure

    laŝ (adj) red; bright red

    laŝlo (adj) bright red; the color of fresh blood

    latŝ (n, inan) link, connection; relay; translation

    latŝa (v tr) link together, connect; relay; translate

    latŝíŝó (adv) together

    lava (adj) black

    lavatse (n, inan) onyx

    läza (adj)  thick (liquid consistency), viscous 

    le (v intr)  extinguish, go out

    le (n, inan) handShortened form of leka

    (prep)  except (for), not including, save for 

    ledaja (n, inan) applesauce, puréed apple dishA common dessert eaten by Ríli, especially in northern Izoi

    leǵŭa (adj)  ghastly, lugubrious, gloomy

    leka (n, inan)  hand

    lekaí (v tr) carry (something) in the hands

    lelhe (n, inan)  green fruit with flakey skin

    lemu (n, inan)  death 

    lemua (v intr)  die 

    lemufyŵa (n, an) raven

    lentí (n, an) species of mammal, brown in color, dog-like face, but an herbivoreOften this is used just to mean "dog", which is not a species native to Elta, when Ríli are talking about canines (dogs, wolves) from Keta

    lepe (n, inan) apple

    lepe (v tr) fold, bendTísûtaap faö kó phutaap lepe fabaet famu. 'She’ll tell him that he must fold his clothes’

    lepele (v intr) fold, bend

    lepla (adj)  supple, bendable, flexible

    ler̂ŭ (v tr) pour (a liquid); spill (a liquid) accidentally

    leruñ (n, inan)  mission, goal

    les (adj)  fresh, clean

    lésa (n, inan)  reward

    lestaí (adj)  delighted, excitedly and exuberantly happy

    letŝi (n, inan) applejuice

    leẃû (n, inan)  sheet, cover; layer; film; blanket; leaf

    lha (adj, pron) a lot, much

    lha (v intr)  swing

    lhamoí (n, inan)  romance, romantic feelings, feelings of love

    lhani (adj)  same This is different from dŭk in that dŭk implies something is actually the same, while lhani implies it only appears or seems to be the same.

    lhäntí (adj)  short (in height) 

    lhes (n, inan)  fear, fright

    lhesti (v tr)  listen to; catch, intercept 

    lhestinaí (n, inan) lecture hall

    lhíǵaí (v intr) chime, ring, beep

    lhiñgä (n, inan) fang

    lhis (adj)  sweet  

    lhizaí (n, inan)  grief, mourning, bereavement

    lhó (adj)  safe, secure, sound

    lhö (interr pron; rel pron)  where 

    lhołe (n, inan)  noise, an irritating sound

    lhołexo (adk) noisy; disruptive

    lhönä (n, inan) lost thing, that which has been lost

    lhönû (v tr)  lose 

    lhuínte (v tr)  tickle; amuse, play with; fondle, grope 

    lhumu (v intr) purr, hum

    lhŭñ (n, inan)  gloom, murk, darkness 

    lhutûí (adj)  olive/yellowish green

    lhŭxö (n, inan)  roast pepperThis is actually a dish that can be made with almost any pepper. Sometimes it is stuffed with goat cheese or vegetables.

    lhyntí (n, inan)  power, strength, control; ability

    lhynû (n, inan)  tidal wave 

    lhynû (n, inan)  tongue

    lhynûsé (adj) gregarious

    li (v tr) cling to, hold on to (weakly), grasp tenuously

    li (n, an) people (irregular plural of la 'person')As in Ríli, literally 'real people'

    (adj)  grey

    lilaí (v intr)  cry, weep intensely and miserably

    límuí (n, inan)  silver

    líset (n, an)  goddess

    lísetnaí (n, inan) temple; shrineAlternate form is lísenaí

    liu (n, inan)  fin (of a fish, etc.) 

    líuta (n, inan)  wave of water

    lo (n, inan) arm

    lo (num, card)  three

    (n, inan)  line; river; listFa sé imiö lo gaǵam buhín ó sé lóla. 'I have three hundred words on this list'

    lodítym (n, inan)  love affair

    löe (v tr)  inherit

    löela (n, an)  heir(ess)

    lóí (n, inan)  flood

    lójuña (n, inan)  overwhelming feeling or passion (a mix positive/negative or unknown)

    lómí (n, inan)  queue, line of people

    lön (n, an)  woman

    lónatróla (n, an)  middleman

    lonu (num, ord; adj)  third 

    lopr̂ (n, inan) branch (e.g. of a tree)

    lopr̂qerasé (n, inan)  insincere agreement, a reluctant truce in which one or more party does not sincerely want to make a truce

    lós (adj)  linear

    lóxa (v intr) arrive, come; happen, come to pass

    lufû (n, inan)  mist

    lufûja (n, inan) dew

    lufûjatse (n, inan) moonstone

    luís (n, inan)  liquid, fluid

    lŭn (n, inan; adv) west

    luó (n, inan)  hole

    luómé (v tr) punch a hole (in something)

    luóméla (n, inan) drill

    luósín (n, inan)  ear cavity

    luóva (n, inan)  nostril

    lûru (v intr)  turn, shift

    lusnä (n, inan) central section of a river

    lutre (n, an)  man of high importance 

    luŵa (n, an) offspring, young; childUsually used with offspring of animals, more rarely with Rílin children.

    ly (v tr)  use 

    lyjaí (v tr)  lace up 

    lyky (v tr) use, employ, make use of

    lykybere (adj) usable

    lykyxo (adj) useful

    lymí (n, an) baby, infant

    lymura (n, inan)  semen

    lyzaí (v intr)  surge forward, rush forward

  • M

    ma (n, an)  mother

    (v intr)  snarl

    mabaí (n, an)  oyster

    maǵä (n, inan)  family, bloodline, heritage, lineage

    maǵäbeŕu (n, inan) familial devotion, love for one’s family member(s)Xazaítakim sébän xoränet imidí a gókim esitaíet--gan be jûíky imiu pa maǵäbeŕula! 'Tonight I leave my family and take up the sword--but do not doubt my familial devotion!'

    maí (adj)  free

    maídaí (n, inan)  situation, circumstances 

    maíla (v intr/tr)  yell out, shout for

    maímaí (n, inan)  peas

    maíŝ (n, an)  slave, indentured servant 

    mäk (n, inan) breast, mammary

    makamí (n, an) caregiver

    mäkmä (n, inan) breastmilk

    mäksé (adj) breast-like, like a breast, having the quality of a mammary

    mälé (v intr)  lie down 

    maó (n, an)  grandmother (maternal)

    mapfó (n, an)  negligent/apathetic mother

    mara (adj)  great, grand

    marû (v intr) flow (water or air)

    mas (n, inan) bed

    mäŝ (n, inan)  reflection, introspection; prudence, wisdom

    masa (v tr) make into a bed, arrange into a nest

    mäsili (v intr/tr)  swallow 

    mäta (n, inan)  milk 

    matraílós (n, inan) throne, ceremonial seat of a monachPossibly derived from mara trelós 'great seat'Be ŝamuky bí matraílóset qûr̂ krösó. 'Don't linger near the throne too long'

    mävû (n, an)  son

    mäzun (n, inan; expression)  greetings, hello (more formal than aɾa)

    me (adj)  thin

    (n, inan)  row, line

    mea (n, inan)  small flower of any kind 

    mehelia (adj) beautiful, exquisite, lovelySaid of people.

    méí (adj)  yellow 

    mékóí (n, an)  friend

    mékóíky (n, inan) relationship

    mélak (n, inan)  oasis 

    melan (n, inan)  skin 

    melanzaky (n, inan) tattooFrom melan 'skin and zaky 'ink'.Melanzaky imimu selañu pato ónälim selañunet. ‘My tattoo is a spider because I love spiders.’

    melo (adj)  skinny, emaciated

    méms (n, inan)  cycle (of the year/seasons)

    méms (n, inan)  yearFocus here is on the completion of four seasons.

    memti (adj) aware, cognizant

    memtidó (n, inan) awareness, cognizance; conscientiousness, care, carefulness, thoughtfulness; tact

    mén (n, inan)  land that is owned, property 

    méña (n, inan)  type of blue fruit

    meñala (n, inan) arts, aesthetic practices

    méñapi (n, inan) jelly made from the méña fruit (a large blue multisectional berry)

    mendo (n, inan) opportunity, chance, occasion (to do something)

    meríóna (n, inan)  kitchen 

    meŝ (n, inan)  law, regulation 

    mésé (adj) linear, in a row, arranged in a line or row; straight; arranged in some kind of order

    meŝlaí (adj)  legal, relating to the law

    meslí (n, inan)  sides of the Rilin neck, which are very sensitive to pleasure and pain

    meŝlí (n, inan)  government

    mesmu (n, inan)  pleasure (physical) 

    mesmura (adj) blissful, serene, deeply and peacefully happy

    méta (n, inan)  house, dwelling

    metmä (n, inan)  internal conflict of thought or emotion

    métuwa (v tr)  live with, cohabitate with 

    mi (adj)  jealous

    (n, an)  girl

    míbaí (n, inan) nursery, place for young children to stay and be cared for

    míelûmu (n, inan) almond paste, marzipan

    milu (n, inan)  game

    mílu (v tr/intr) see; be aware of, take note of, remark, notice; pay attention to

    miluä (n, inan)  politics; games

    mím (adj)  cute; little

    mímót (n, inan)  subculture, small social subgroup, niche 

    míppo (v intr)  try, attempt

    mippoky (n, inan) attempt, try

    mipŭ (n, inan) smile

    miŕû (n, inan) broth, light soupTypically made using fish or chicken stock, sometimes flavored with garlic, ginger, and gazu peppers.

    míŝ (n, inan)  illusion, dream-like state, hallucination; acid trip

    misa (n, inan)  spite, resentment; envy 

    míŝa (v intr) hallucinate, dream, have a vision; daydream

    míŝi (v tr)  feed

    míŝutré (n, an) pet, animal kept as a pet

    mítä (n, inan)  plum

    mitr̂ (n, inan)  knuckle

    mítŝa (adj) additional, supportive, helpful, extra, supplementary

    mítŝan (n, inan)  guestroom

    mo (n, inan)  pan

    (discourse marker)  really?

    (n, inan)  device, tool

    mó- (prefix) Prefix meaning "hidden"Can be attached to nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

    móa (n, an)  sibling; a very close friend 

    móbír̂a (n, inan) hidden loan fees

    móbísŭs (n, inan) hidden weapon

    módä (adj) last, final

    módaís (n, inan)  fashion, style; sort, kind, type

    módäŝó (adv) finally, at last

    módŭn (n, inan)  intuition

    móhém (n, inan) love, adoration, dedication, devotion

    móhí (n, inan)  mat of reeds or bark 

    moí (n, inan)  weaving

    móí (n, inan)  deceit 

    moía (v tr)  weave

    móía (v tr) cheat, deceive, be deceitful toward someone

    moíala (n, an)  weaver

    moías (n, inan)  tapestry

    moífysé (n, inan)  nest

    moífyséja (n, an) baby birds still in the nest

    móír̂ (n, inan)  member, part, section; area, region

    móís (n, inan) balance (not the object); mathematical equation

    móísé (adj)  willing, voluntary; desirous, wanting 

    móíwalómadó (n, inan)  voter fraud 

    mójen (adv)  tomorrow

    móka (v intr)  weep, cry

    móky (v intr)  shout, call, cry

    mókya (v intr) call out, yell, cry, shout

    mókyña (v tr)  maintain (an arugment/opinion, etc.), uphold, support 

    mółaístaraí (v tr)  seize or capture illegally, take away from abruptly (causing distress), wrech away 

    mółû (n, inan)  pole, post

    mómarûky (n, inan) rip tide

    món (prep) after (in time)

    mön (n, inan)  pinfeather of a goose

    móñgär̂ŭ (v intr) be hungover, have a hangover, suffer the effects of overdrinking

    móní (v tr)  watch, guard

    mónmón (n, inan)  sitting room

    mönres (n, inan) quill pen

    mónuri (adj) fond of, affectionate toward, emotionally attached toOnly applies to animate's feelings toward other animates (people or animals).

    möpa (n, an)  nursemaid

    mopé (n, inan) pancake

    móptos (n, inan) hidden poison, concealed poison, unknown poison

    móq (n, inan)  pork

    moqaí (v intr) act, perform theatre/drama

    moqanaí (n, inan)  theatre (building)

    moqes (n, inan)  theatre, art of drama

    moriŝu (n, inan) key; solution, answer; end, goal

    möŕû (v intr)  stick, adhere 

    mose (n, inan)  robe 

    möske (n, inan)  ice

    möskea (adj) frozen

    möskeala (n, inan) citation, quotation

    möskesé (adj) cold as ice, like ice, frozen solid, ice-like, icy cold, frozen

    móŝu (n, inan) chin

    móta (n, inan; adv) north, northward, to the north, the north

    móvesara (n, inan) unknown disorder, unexplained chaos, unapparent chaos

    móvizuña (adj) secretly angry, secretly mad, secretly upset

    moẃä (n, inan)  gore

    möxö (v tr)  smell

    möxös (n, inan) smell, scent

    mu (adv) again, once more, once againCan also be used as a prefix for verbs or nouns (somewhat comparable to re- in English when used with verbs).

    mu (n, inan) heart, core; inner chamber of a house or fortress

    mu (prep)  near, close to

    (adj)  indistinct

    (n, an)  duckling

    mudó (n, inan)  proximity

    muí (v intr)  drip

    mûíkí (v tr)  engineer, design, plan

    muítŝí (n, an)  wild cat 

    mŭka (n, an) maternal aunt

    mukö (n, inan)  rendered fat 

    mukösé (adj) oily, greasy

    mukse (n, inan)  reanalysis, remaking, redesignation 

    mula (v tr)  help, aidThis is shortened form of mulabe

    mulabé (v tr)  help, aid

    mulabere (adj)  helpful, conductive to success 

    mulaky (n, inan)  instance of aid/help

    mulanala (n, inan) chronicles, annals of history

    mulara (n, inan)  help, aid

    mulaxo (adj)  helpful

    mulí (v tr)  help out, see through, support, encourage, help

    mulíma (adj)  happy, joyful, cheerful

    mulin (adj)  savory

    muly (n, inan)  water dam

    mulykyíle (n, inan)  mental paralysis, mental block, condition of being mentally “stuck”

    muma (n, inan) colored threads used in making decorative blankets

    mumu (n, an)  gosling

    mŭn (n, inan) dip, hallow; hole; pothole (in a road)

    muñr̂ (n, inan) copy, duplicate

    mur̂ (n, inan)  shelf; stage

    mura (n, inan)  water

    muradelaísé (adj)  neurotic, overemotional, crazed, agitated, upset

    murajóŝala (n, an) salamanderLiterally, 'water walker'

    murakila (n, inan) bladder

    muralhes (adj)  traumatized, mentally scarred

    murasé (adj) easy, convenient, efficient

    murí (v intr; n, inan) purr, sound made by a domestic cat

    muŕó (n, inan)  jugular vein/area on the neck

    murum (n, inan)  hut 

    mutä (adj)  poor, impoverished

    mutema (n, inan)  inner thigh

    mûts (adj) poor, broke, scraping bySlang

    mutû (v tr)  repeat

    mûu (adj)  sound, well

    muẃí (n, an)  lover, sweetheartOften used as a pet name between partners.

    muŵí (adv) again, once more, once again

    muwó (v tr) store, put away; squirrel away, keep something for oneself (to the exclusion of others)

    muwósé (adj) greedy, selfish

    muxu (n, an)  goose

    my (n, inan)  silk

    mydí (n, inan)  woodworking

    myí (adj)  smooth 

    myísa (adj)  melancholy, bittersweet emotion; depression, sorrow; doubt 

    myítí (adj)  quiet 

    myñó (v tr)  pierce, stab through, puncture, penetrate

    mynûñ (interjection)  oh shitǃVulgar slang.

    mynûñ (n, inan)  oil for burning Also used as a cuss word.

    myrí (v intr)  smile playfully, grin, smirk

    myŕŭ (v tr) record, write down; save for later

    myrû, mynû (v tr) burn, cause to burn

    myŝ (n, inan)  writing boardUsed by scribes of many kinds and by educational institutions.

    myta (v tr) beset, attack, go after, target, go for, follow, hunt, go and get

    mytak (n, inan)  pack, bundle

    mytŭ (n, inan)  short skirt

  • N

    na (discourse marker)  emphasizer for all kinds of words, a kind of intensifier

    na (discourse marker)  intensifier/emphasizing particle which follows words 

    na (n, inan)  shame

    (num, card)  seven

    na (prep) with, alongside, near, next to; by means of

    naba (adj, pron) any, whatever

    naduí (n, inan)  maximum

    naǵäms (n, inan)  small of the back

    nahéí (v intr)  plea, beg 

    naí (interr pron; rel pron)  where

    naíkó (v tr)  turn down, reject, refuse 

    naíñ (adj)  sour

    naípä (adj)  pink

    naíŕe (n, inan)  pathway; hallway

    naíŕemó (n, inan) birth canal

    naíŝe (n, inan)  sympathy

    naísi (adj)  pitiful, poor

    nake (v tr)  grab, take 

    nakes (n, inan) tongs (tool)

    nakrísta (n, inan)  ode; lament; story, fable; epic Typically the content of this type of poem or story is tragic or melancholic.

    nala (pron) anyone, whoever, anybody

    nała (v tr/intr) sell

    nalhadu (adj)  enraptured, amazed, impassioned, overwhelmed with awe

    nalhö (pron, adv) anywhere, wherever, any place, in any location

    nälíuta (n, inan)  revolution (political, social); sinking; falling

    nalytŝa (adj) ancient, very old

    näma (v tr) calculate, figure out, conclude due to calculation

    namós (n, inan)  tower

    nañaíŕa (n, inan)  sarcasm, caustic wit; a thorn bush

    nañle (adj)  stable

    nanmé (n, inan)  sock

    nanó (pron, adv) anytime, whenever, at any time, at any moment

    nänö (v intr) melt, thaw

    nänömu (n, inan)  melt-water, dripping of melting ice in spring 

    nänu (num, ord; adj)  seventh

    näŕaqa (v intr/tr) hurt, cramp, acheUsed with body parts typically in the ergative case (if used transitively) and experiencers in the absolutive. If used intransitively, subjects are in the absolutive (sometimes with oblique arguments being the body part that is hurting).

    nari (adj) clean

    naridó (n, inan) cleanliness, cleanness, neatness

    narisí (n, inan)  soap

    näŕŭñ (n, inan)  tin

    nasé (adj)  guilty, condemnable , having done something bad or wrong

    naŝi (n, inan)  right choice, correct way

    naŝít (n, inan)  porcelain

    näsízaín (n, inan) century, unit of 100 years

    näŝkŭn (n, inan)  rib cage

    näsle (n, inan) butt, buttocksslang

    näsu (n, inan)  gums of the mouth

    naŝy (v intr/tr)  understand, know, know about

    naŝyt (v tr)  discover, find; know

    naŝyté (v tr) find out, discover

    naŝytédó (n, inan) discovery

    nätéí (n, an/inan)  source, origin; spring; parents

    nätéífûr̂ (n, inan)  saliva gland

    natŝäk (adj)  stubborn, hard-headed 

    naxentí (n, inan)  study, devotion, discipline, work 

    nazä (n, an) species of thin snake, blue-green, non-venomous, often found in gardens

    nazera (v intr)  explode, blow up 

    (conj)  if

    (prep)  on (resting on physically)

    neans (n, inan)  shaft, pole

    nébí (n, inan) carttypically pulled by a beast of burden

    nedeŝ (n, inan)  embarassment

    néísa (n, inan)  wit, sharpness of mind, charm; ability to communicate

    néísaxo (adj) witty, clever

    néíŝe (v tr) compensate, return some value to another, reimburse

    néíts (adj)  snug, tight; cozy

    nek (n, inan)  knee 

    nekka (n, inan)  kneecap 

    nela (v intr) relax, be calmed, relinquish anxiety, feel calm, calm down, be at peace, feel peace, forget to worry

    nełaí (adj)  inferior 

    nelaímu (adj)  relaxed, calm; easy-going; reasonable, rational 

    nellû (v tr) close

    ner̂ (n, inan)  wall

    nere (v tr)  giveHas a formal and high language usage.

    nereí (adj) generous, giving, magnanimous; kind

    nerekŭ (v intr) abdicate one's position

    nerela (n, inan)  penisSomewhat euphemistic but clear in meaning.

    neŕí (n, inan)  ward, protective barrier 

    nes (adj)  fine, lovely, graceful 

    nésé (adj) hypothetical, imaginary

    nesli (v intr)  have sex

    nespe (n, inan)  whisper

    nespea (v intr)  whisper 

    nesqo (v tr)  dispute 

    netelé (n, inan)  tranquility, serenity 

    netlha (n, inan)  external female genitalia, collectively

    netreló (v intr) kneelBe netrelóky, bexŭla, wébaky! 'Don't kneel, fool, stand up!'

    nezelu (n, inan)  journey, trip, voyage

    nezezula (n, an) traveler; wanderer; pilgrim

    (adj) clear

    ní'a (v tr) buy

    níje (v intr)  thrive, be well, be content; be safe 

    níjíla (n, inan) scholar

    níjísra (v tr)  learn, find out, gain knowledge

    níjísranaí (n, inan) school

    níka (n, inan)  dried flower petals and other herbs

    níla (n, an) princess

    níłe (n, inan)  roasted termites

    nilhu (v intr)  weep softly 

    nílus (n, inan)  tea (northern variety; so-called ‘sweet tea’) 

    nílusí (adj) comforting, familiar; tastyLit., 'tea-like'

    nímba (v intr)  skip, jump, hop

    nímbaí (adj) jumpy, bouncy; nervous; hyperactiveSaid of people or animals

    níñgí (n, inan)  journey, trip, voyage

    níñgíle (v intr)  travel, go on a trip

    níñgílela (n, an) traveler

    níns (n, inan) back of (something)

    nínska (n, inan) back of the head

    nínskelu (n, inan) back of the neck

    niñy (v tr) chop

    níñyr̂í (n, an)  goat

    níra (adj) clarity

    níradó (n, inan) clarity, clearness; logicality

    níŕí (v tr)  feel (physically), touch; caress 

    níŕí (v tr)  touch, feel

    níŕíra (n, inan) touching, the act of touching, feeling

    níŕísé (adj)  sensuous, relating to the senses

    niŕûna (v tr)  test, try 

    nís (n, inan)  past (time)

    nisna (v tr) ask for, request

    níŝó (adv) clearly; obviously

    nistó (adj)  easy

    nisû (adv)  not yet 

    níu (v intr)  recline, lie down

    níura (n, inan)  oral sex

    níuska (n, inan) back of the kneeThis is a very sensitive location on the body for the Ríli.

    (interr pron; rel pron)  when

    (n, inan) book

    nóí (v tr)  want, desire 

    nóíky (n, inan)  desire, that which is wanted

    nóíra (n, inan)  desire (in general)

    nöla (n, an) scholar; reader, one who reads

    nömuŝ (n, inan)  vow, promise, oath

    nömuŝa (v intr) promise, make a promise, vow

    nónoí (v intr/tr) churn, shake; beat

    nór̂ (n, inan)  project, plan, undertaking 

    nu (n, inan)  fruit; nut 

    nu (prep)  inside

    nugiswȯ (v tr) put inside, insert

    nŭgû (v tr) bannish, exile (a person)

    nuíŝa (n, inan) canoe, small paddled boat

    nŭkéí (n, inan) body fat

    nula (n, an)  lover, paramourShortening from numalala

    nûlha (n, inan) snow

    nûlhatetíñ (n, inan) snowflake

    nulí (n, inan) teet, nipple; small breastSlang

    nume (v tr) attach, put (something) on (something else)

    numula (adj)  in love 

    numulala (n, an)  lover, paramour

    nur̂ (n, inan)  shaft; penis 

    nura (n, inan)  value, worth 

    nuradó (n, inan)  pleasure (emotional or intellectual)

    nuraí (v intr/tr) be worth (something), be of valueBe nuraítap hóraet límu. 'It is not worth your sanity'

    nurasé (n, inan) section of a river that contains the bulk of fish as well as drinkable water

    nuraxo (adj) worthy, having value; relevant, pertinent; important

    nŭr̂i (n, inan) cheek

    nŭŕu (v tr) ban, outlaw, criminalize (some behavior)

    nus (v tr)  lower 

    nŭsa (adj)  warm 

    nûskuí (n, inan)  despair, hopelessness

    nŭŝnû (adj)  fat

    nŭsû (n, inan)  gall bladder 

    nut (n, inan) abyss, crack, chasm, rift

    nuteẃän (n, inan)  phobia 

    nuẃí (n, an/inan)  flower; lover

    nyí (v tr)  sew

    nyíla (n, an) tailor, seamstress, sewerThere is no gender implication in this term

    nyít (n, inan)  seam, closure

    nyn (adj)  naked, nude, unclothed

    nyr̂ (n, inan)  parallel, analogy

    nyr̂óre (n, inan) contrast, comparison of opposites

    nyŕy (n, inan) alignment, lining up; being in a row, being organized in a line

    nys (n, inan)  leaf

    nyví (n, an) baby, newborn baby

  • O

    ó (prep)  in, at (static location)

    ó (v tr)  keep, retain

    ó'ír̂ŭ (v tr) reduce, bring down, level, flatten; demean; demonize

    óítŝe (n, inan) confusion, befuddlement, bewilderment, perplexity

    óka (v intr)  talk 

    ókadöpä (n, inan) clause, sentence

    ókaky (n, inan)  statement

    ókamyñó (v tr/intr) interrupt, talk overConsidered very rude in Rílin culture

    ókané (v tr)  talk about, discuss 

    ókta (v intr)  pretend 

    ółaí (adj)  fascinated, interested

    ólaíe (v tr)  import, bring in

    ółéza (n, inan) counter, table, bench

    ólóbuína (v intr)  reflect objectively, separate from one’s thoughts in order to gain a more objective perspective 

    ólöm (n, inan) coastline, beach, shore, seaside

    ólón (n, inan)  ocean, sea 

    ólóntse (n, inan) lapis lazuli

    ólum (n, inan) cradle, bed; bowl, bowl-shaped object; ; womb; world, sanctuary

    óly (v tr)  solve, figure out

    oma (n, inan)  soul

    ómañ (n, inan)  musical instrument

    ómha (v tr) admire, respect, hold in great regard

    ómhara (n, inan) admiration, respect

    ómí (n, an)  grandmother (paternal)

    ómina (n, inan)  sky

    óminaví (n, inan) planet

    omni (v tr) contemplate, reflect on, think about

    ómóka (v intr) brag, boast, gloat

    ómókaky (n, inan) bragging point, reason to brag, instance of bragging

    ómókala (n, an) braggart; loud, obnoxious peson

    ömu (n, inan) winter, wintertime

    ömûíö (n, inan)  ledge, edge; boundaries 

    ömûíösín (n, inan)  ear ridge 

    óñ (n, an)  eel

    ónä (v tr)  love a non-animate thing/idea/object/place, etc.

    ónanéky (n, inan)  discussion 

    ónäs (n, inan)  hobby, passion, interest, pursuit

    ónäslo (n, inan) passion, obsession

    ondo (n, inan)  habit, tendency

    oní (n, an)  rodent 

    onja (v intr) have a dream, dream

    onja (v tr)  finish, complete

    onjä (n, inan)  dream, illusion

    onjé (v tr)  imagine, envision

    önû (n, inan) back of the elbow?

    óñyr̂ (n, an)  eel

    ór̂ (prep) across

    ör̂a (adj)  soft

    óraípa (n, inan)  familial relatives; group of close relations or friends

    óraíǃ (interjection)  heyǃ

    óréíŝa (v tr) cause worry, stress, cause pain

    óréíŝé (adj) worried, stressed, pained

    óŕi (adv)  precisely, exactly

    ór̂í (n, an)  grandfather (paternal)

    órûǃ! (interjection)  hey!

    ós (adv)  enough 

    óŝ (adj)  young, inexperienced, green; silly, cluelessSaid of people, not typially a positive connotation.

    oŝna (n, inan) birthing pains, pain of labor

    oŝnasé (adj) painful

    óŝne (n, inan)  space, empty area

    óŝóí (n, inan) bullshit, nonsensevulgar slang

    óŝóí (adj)  intensifier for adjectives/verbs/nouns By itself this is a noun meaning something like "bullshit", but used as a modifier it is a vulgar slang intensifier, used somewhat like "fucking", as in the phrase, "this fucking table!"

    osyín (n, inan) candle wax; oiled paperOiled paper in this sense is used for waterproofing or fire starting

    ót (n, inan)  idea, belief, philosophical school; way of life 

    öẃäsé (n, inan)  precipice

    öwaxa (n, inan)  mine (for extracting minerals from the earth)

    öwaxaí (v tr/intr) mine from the earth, uncover mineral

    ówunísa (v intr)  inhale

    óza (n, inan) contract, promise, binding oath

    ózaíe (v tr)  export, take out

  • P

    pa (prep) by, by means of

    pa (v tr)  wrap 

    paí (n, inan)  type of berry, usually red, sometimes blue or purple

    paínû (n, inan) bodice of a dress

    päk (n, an)  fish 

    paka (v tr)  slap, whack, beat

    pakabän (adj)  taboo, socially unacceptable 

    pañ (adj)  low 

    pantû (v tr) remove, take away; deconstruct, take apart'Pantûbípin bí teet ró ptela famu. ‘We are trying to remove the knife from her back’

    päŕa (n, inan)  sex, love-making (some kind of intense emotion is implied with this term)

    päŕi (n, an) associate, partnerUusally used in professional contexts.

    päŝ (adj)  passionately melancholy

    pat (n, inan) cause, reason, origin

    pato (conj) because, since, as, for

    pe (n, inan)  shirt

    péí (n, inan)  introspection, reflection, meditation; following wisdom

    pélaxí (n, inan)  fishing boat

    pélóa (n, inan)  potato cakes

    pemyłe (adj)  transfixed, charmed

    péñ (n, inan)  plant

    péñmóísla (n, an)  doctor, healer

    péñmóísra (n, inan)  practice of medicine

    pepóru (n, inan)  persimmon

    peqaq (n, inan) large, brown/red variety of mushroomNative to Izoi, grows in wet and dark environments

    perí (n, an) baby, chid of breastfeeding age

    pero (n, inan)  woman’s shoe

    pér̂tat (n, inan)  work of art

    petŝ (n, inan) corn, maize

    pewe (v tr)  delete, eliminate, cancel out, exterminate 

    péxö (v tr)  fix, mend, reassemble, put back together 

    pfaí (v tr)  jab

    pfaísé (adj) prickly, unfriendly, antagonistic, acerbic

    pfó; ŵó (adj)  white

    pfókala (n, inan)  pale stripe down the spine of all Rili

    pikarí (n, an) chickadee, titmouseThis is an onomatopoeic word for this bird

    pilu (n, inan) center of a flower

    pílu (n, inan) seed

    pílŭ (v tr)  paint

    pílŭla (n, an)  dancer

    pílŭs (n, inan) paint

    pír̂ó (v tr) complete, accomplish, finished, achieve, do

    píson (n, inan) background; scenery

    píwä (n, inan)  pepper Generic term--there are several specific pepper varieties endemic to Izoi.

    pkó (n, inan)  tail

    pkóta (n, inan)  vase for dried flowers

    pkynti (adj)  superior, elite

    (n, inan)  potato 

    pofín (n, inan) fluff; uncarded wool

    póky (v intr)  hide

    pókynaí (n, inan) hiding place, hideout

    ponä (n, inan)  liver 

    póñu (n, inan)  surprise, state of mild shock

    por̂dö (v tr)  rule against; denounce

    póŝé (v intr)  live as a hermit; be in absolute extended solitude

    póŝela (n, an)  hermit 

    pr̂a (v tr)  throw, hurl 

    pr̂aké (n, an)  worker, labourer

    pr̂aŝe (v tr)  project, throw up/out, send out across 

    pre (n, inan) care, attention, concern

    prea (v tr) care for, take care of (a person)

    príle (n, inan)  fragrance, scent

    pry (v intr)  limp 

    pŝa (v intr)  rock, topple

    pŝä (v tr)  mutilate, torture

    pŝelhí (n, inan) contradiction, objection

    pŝelhía (v tr) contradict, object to, speak against

    psíkilí (n, inan) blood veins

    psílhut (n, inan) blood

    psílhutse (n, inan) garnet

    psílhutsé (adj) bloody, covered in blood

    psíním (n, inan)  language

    psínímla (n, an) linguist

    psínu (v tr) coerce, manipulate; blackmail, extort

    psínuí (adj) coercive, manipulative; scheming; evil, malicious

    psínusé (adj) manipulative, coercive

    pŝir̂û (n, inan)  profession 

    psítŭñ (n, inan) axis; base; cause

    pŝóra (n, inan) bread

    pŝórasé (adj) squishy, soft, literally ‘bread-like’

    psötar̂ (adj)  fast

    pŝöẃuga (n, inan)  fluff, cottony material

    psû (v intr)  flop down 

    psuka (adj)  independent, free-thinking

    psuran (n, inan)  tunnel

    pŝy (v intr)  must, should (probability)

    pta (v intr)  should, must, ought to (obligation); owe 

    pte (n, inan) back of the torso, back

    pto (v tr)  hurt, wound, injure 

    ptos (n, inan) poison

    ptosé (adj) poisonous; deadly, lethal

    pu (n, inan) cask, barrel, keg

    (v intr)  wink

    pûíra (v intr) communicate

    pûíradó (n, inan) communication

    pulhä (n, inan) thunder

    pulumu (v intr) make a bubbling sound/make bubbles underwater with the mouth

    puñ (adj)  weak 

    puñíqy (n, inan)  problem, challenge, difficulty 

    pur̂e (v tr)  shoot down

    puŕí (n, inan)  mouth

    puŕíap (adj) reticent, silent, quiet, not talking, tight-lipped(said of people)

    pyr̂iñ (n, inan)  sarong

  • Q

    qafa (v tr) pick something (small) up with one’s fingertips; carry something in one’s fingers; pick something (e.g. a flower, berry, leaf, etc.)(usually something in nature, with the intention to harvest and eat it)

    qafe (n, inan)  finger

    qafím (n, inan)  fingernail

    qagaín (n, inan)  vow, oath, promise 

    qakanaí (n, inan)  public building

    qara (v tr)  split, separate, divide, cleave

    qat (n, inan)  desk

    qatnaí (n, inan)  office

    qawyn (n, an)  neighbor

    qelho (v intr) cough

    qera (v tr)  fracture, break, tear 

    qerata (adj)  furious, enraged, livid (with anger)

    qeróka (v tr)  insult, offend 

    qesny (adj)  frightening, scary; overwhelming

    qestä (n, inan) inevitable end, fate, destiny, fate that cannot be avoided

    qílha (n, an) toddler, little kid, small child

    qíu (n, inan)  metalwork

    qízöpta (n, inan) a wheeled wagon pulled by a domesticated deer

    qo (n, an) king, male monarch

    qó (n, inan) pole, post, stick, rail

    (v intr/tr) call, call to (someone), call on

    (n, inan)  justification, rationalization, reason 

    qobín (n, an) mollusks

    qóŕa (n, inan)  dialect

    qovi (v tr) kidnap, capture

    qudöp (n, inan) body part, appendage

    qudöpínŝía (v tr) amputate, remove a body part via a medical process

    qudöpínŝídó (n, inan) amputation, removal of a body part via a medical process

    qûín (n, inan)  flake, chip

    qûina (v tr) chip, break off a small piece of

    qules (n, inan) soil, dirt, earth

    quñra (adj) orangeAdjective describing the color orange.

    qur̂ (v tr)  scum, dirt, crud, muck

    qûr̂ (adv)  too (much)

    qûra (v tr) button (v tr), button up, close (something) using buttons

    qûru (n, inan) button; cap of a toadstool

    qut (n, inan) clay

    qutés (n, an/inan) body, physical body (as opposed to spirit); oneself

    qutésé (adj) physical, bodily, of or relating to the physical body of a person

    qutö (n, inan) shape of the body, figure, appearance of the body, build

  • R

    ra (adj)  cunning

    ŕa (n, inan) blizzard

    r̂a (n, inan)  supply store

    ŕaítí (adv) at some point in the future, later on; whenever is convenient

    räkä (expression; interjection)  goddamnitǃ, shitǃ

    rämí (n, inan) legume, lentil

    rärä (n, inan)  lentil soup

    ras (n, inan) bellybutton, navel

    rastin (adj)  dirty; dirty, slovenly, stupid person

    ŕätû (n, an) candidate, choice for political office

    raxa (n, inan) childbirth, labor

    raxaí (v intr) be born

    raxamura (n, inan) birth fluids, amniotic fluids

    re (v intr/tr)  write 

    (adj)  hot

    ŕe (prep) about, pertaining to, on the subject of

    réamé (v tr) heat up, heat, warm

    rébim (n, inan) underground oven

    rédó (n, inan)  heat

    réhävé (n, inan)  small intestine 

    r̂éí (n, inan)  menstrual blood 

    r̂éídó (n, inan)  menstrual period 

    r̂éínär̂ (n, inan)  menstrual cramps 

    ŕek (n, inan)  metal 

    r̂ek (adj)  hard, solid

    ŕekan (n, inan)  crotch

    r̂ekneŝ (adj) blunt, not sharp

    r̂elí (n, inan) small white variety of mushroom

    ŕeñä (n, an)  paternal uncle 

    rénaí (n, inan) indoor stove

    rénaíla (n, an) cook, chef

    rénes (n, inan) calligraphy

    ŕenílŭ (n, inan)  palace 

    rénu (n, inan) indoor oven

    ŕeqä (n, inan) anger, wrath, rage, fury

    rera (n, inan)  writingWriting as an action, as a hobby or profession.

    res (n, inan) pen, writing tool, writing implementCan be an ink pen (internal ink), a quill, or a wooden or metal stylus

    r̂estŭ (v tr) wear down, weather; sand down, smooth, make smooth

    retŝe (v intr) come closer, approachHas a more elevated implication than sea

    (adj)  true, real

    ŕí (v tr)  expel, throw out 

    r̂i (n, inan)  room, chamber 

    ŕí'ä (n, inan)  irritation, pissed-offedness, exasperation, annoyance

    r̂ía (v intr) simmer, gently boil; bubble

    ríenta (n, an) child

    ŕíka (n, inan)  spice  

    ŕíkaí (adj)  spicy 

    Ríla (n, an) Ríla person

    ŕilhökŭna (n, inan)  riddle; paradox 

    Ríli (n, an pl) Ríli peopleLi is the irregular plural of la, meaning 'person'Be bur̂ li lun Ríli 'The Ríli are not a large people'

    Rílin (orthography) (Part of speech) EnglishNotesExample

    Rílin, Ríliní (n, inan) Rílin language, the language of the Ríli

    r̂ímí (adj) frenetic, frenzied

    ríña (n, inan)  dome 

    ŕiní (n, inan)  goat milk 

    ŕíqä (n, inan)  gathering of relatives

    ŕíqä (n, inan)  party, festival 

    ŕíŕeqa (n, inan)  gruel

    ŕiŕû (adj) amused, merry, laughing, cheerful

    rísa (adj)  pretty

    rísen (n, inan) copper

    r̂iŝu (n, inan)  nectar, fruit juice

    ŕita (n, inan)  yoghurt from goat milk

    r̂íte (v tr)  play (a musical instrument)

    r̂íu (adj)  tan, tawny, beige

    r̂iule (n, inan) area around the collarbones, upper chest, lower neck region

    r̂íva (n, an)  girl, young woman

    ro (num, card)  eight

    (prep)  from, away from 

    rófetra (v intr)  survive, endure

    rókala (n, inan) blunt weapon such as a club (non-specific)

    rölí (n, inan)  mythology

    ŕóma (n, inan) consonant

    r̂óñ (n, inan)  wheat

    ronu (num, ord; adj)  eighth 

    róŝó (adv) away

    ŕosy (v intr)  hover 

    röt (n, inan)  group

    rötfa (n, inan)  mass, tangle of fiber 

    r̂övy (n, inan)  plow 

    ŕóŵabu (n, inan) alphabet

    ŕóẃasén (n, inan)  necessity, something that must exist or is inevitable

    ŕóẃat (n, inan)  structure, system; shape, form; nature, essence 

    (n, an)  guest 

    rugä (v intr)  have sex

    rugära (n, inan)  sexual intercourse

    r̂ûlí (n, inan)  music

    rŭnmû (v tr)  scan, check, inspect 

    rŭnmûle (v intr) look around, glance around

    ŕuqä (v intr) close, snap shut, quickly shut; zip shut; button shut

    rus (adj)  thick (solid material)

    ruŝ (n, inan)  food

    r̂ŭs (n, an) small brown rodentSimilar to a vole or fieldmouse

    ruŝdó (n, inan)  placenta

    ruŝnínaí (n, inan) restaurant

    r̂y (n, inan)  sorrow 

    ŕyñ (n, inan)  illness

    r̂ynís (n, inan)  remorse, regret

    r̂ys (n, inan)  glitch, error, problem, fluke 

    ŕysézyñsé (adj)  sick, ill, unwell

  • S

    sa (prep) above, overOften meaning not touching the item it is referring to (i.e. "floating" above or hanging).

    sa (adj)  deep

    (v intr)  have sex 

    ŝa (prep) without

    ŝa (n, inan)  petal

    ŝababu (v intr) stand on one foot/legJólí móíset ŝababu. 'You require balance to stand on one foot'

    sabän (n, inan; adv) midnight, at midnight

    sädó (n, inan)  fucking, sexVulgar slang.

    saí (adj)  upper

    saíka (n, inan) top of the head, cap of the skull

    salis (adj) satisfied, content; well, doing well, thriving

    sama (v intr)  feel (+ adj.) (emotionally) 

    samamu (n, inan) park, domesticated gardened area in a city

    saman (n, inan)  tree

    ŝamí (v intr) stand, be standingCompare to ŝamû 'stand up' (from a sitting or lying position)

    ŝamu (v tr) stand around, stand near (something), stand close to; linger near

    ŝamû (v intr)  stand up

    ŝana (v tr)  lack, be without

    ŝanka (n, inan)  shortage

    saq (n, inan; adv) south, southwards, going south, toward the south

    ŝaŝa (n, inan)  stuff, things; crap, crud, shit

    saŝó (adv) above, up

    satreló (v intr) sit up (from a lying or reclined position)

    ŝatû (n, inan)  secluded place; womb; tomb

    ŝawéba (v intr) stand on one's toes, stand on tiptoes

    saẃet (n, inan)  trouble, problems 

    sazä (n, inan)  feeling, emotion

    sazäwe (n, inan)  insecurity, hang-up 

    se (adv) almost, nearly, not quite

    (dem adj; dem pron)  this

    (interjection, discourse marker)  um, uh 

    ŝé (adj)  heavy 

    sea (v intr) approach, get closer, move near

    ŝéatepa (v tr)  squeeze someone’s breast

    sébän (adv; n, inan) tonight, this night, this eveningPtakípin zaíta sébän 'We must leave tonight'

    ŝédó (n, inan)  weight

    séfet (adv) now, at this time, immediately, right away; soon

    séjen (adv; n, inan) today, this dayLaílatiim bí naxentíet séjen 'I will begin the study today'

    sékéí (adv) like this, in this way, thus, in this manner

    selañu (n, an) spider

    selhume (v tr)  kiss 

    selu (v tr)  lead, direct, manage

    semí (adj)  similar

    semra (n, inan)  instance of thinking, individual thought

    semulö (n, an)  female model of a painter/sculpter

    semum (n, inan)  doll, statue; likeness

    semuma (v tr)  simulate

    semuxa (n, an)  male model of a painter/sculpter

    sén (adv)  here

    sepu (n, inan) community, collective whole of people, system of the group of people

    sér̂a (v intr)  manifest, be realized, be made clear or real 

    seru (n, inan) brain

    sesna (v tr)  ruin, mess up; break off, discontinue (a relationship, etc.); become estranged

    séŝyt (adv; n, inan)  this many, such a number

    ŝet (n, inan)  dried shrimp, often eaten with spices 

    sexés (n, inan)  technology

    (adj)  pale/mint green

    (n, an)  self

    ŝí (v tr)  fight 

    síje (v intr)  get married to, wed 

    síjedó (n, inan)  marriage 

    síjela (n, an)  spouse

    sikénra (n, inan)  penisA more clinical term.

    ŝilí (v tr)  disseminate, sprinkle, disperse

    siló (v tr)  follow

    silóky (n, inan)  pattern

    silósé (adj) subservient, submissive, contrite

    sín (n, inan) ring, circle

    sín (n, inan)  ear

    ŝiŕû (n, inan)  soup of vegetable stock and spices 

    sísakata (adj) charmed, amazed, entranced, enchanted

    sísé (adj) own, one's own

    ŝíŝé (n, inan)  pearl

    síséŝó (adv) by one's self, on one's own, alone, by one's own power or ability alone

    siŝu (v intr/tr)  hunt for animals/game

    siŝula (n, an) hunter

    sít (n, inan) anus, assholeVulgar slang. Often used in isolated to mean 'fuck you!' approximately, which comes from the phrase sít r̂ŭsmu lí, literally 'you are a rodent's anus'

    sít (expression)  fuck you (literally ‘you’re a rodent’s anus’) (from ‘sit ʂɯsmu li’)Vulgar slang.

    ŝít (prep)  for, for the benefit of, intended for 

    ŝíŭ (n, inan)  glade, small clearing in the middle of a forest

    ŝíum (n, inan)  pipe 

    ŝíumóa (v tr)  seduce, lead away; distract

    síxé (n, inan)  zenith

    (adj)  guilty, feeling guilt, ashamed, egretful

    ŝó (v tr) brush, use a brush to comb through or organize (e.g. one's hair or a horse's hair)

    ŝógû (n, inan)  mountain

    sókra (n, inan)  topic, subject, material; concentration

    sólé (v tr)  sooth, take away pain or tension

    sólés (n, inan) medicine

    sólésé (adj) medicinal, relating to medicine

    sölûn (adv) suddenly, unexpectedly

    sóñé (n, an)  people, populace, group

    sóp (n, inan)  step; footprint 

    sóŝin (v tr/intr) clean one's house

    sót (n, inan)  stomach 

    sóta (v intr/tr) believe, think, hold as trueCan take nouns as complements, infinitive verbs, and kó clauses (that clauses).

    sótnû (n, inan)  stomach, belly 

    sótólóra (n, inan)  elitism

    sóu (n, inan)  guiltiness 

    ŝu (adv)  still (ongoing action); even now

    subä (n, inan) barge

    sufu (n, inan) opportunity, chance, occasion (to do something)

    ŝuǵet (n, inan)  way, fashion, manner

    suíle (n, inan)  forest, woods 

    suíleda (n, inan)  prison, jail

    sŭka (v intr) can, be ableOften coincides with other verbs in the infinitive

    sŭkadó (n, inan) ability, potency, capability, power; charm, charisma; potential; influence

    sŭkaky (n, inan) moment of sudden ability or power

    ŝukí (adj)  unwell, unhappy

    sŭkûra (n, inan) potential, unrealized ability

    sûlíŝíkän (n, inan) music group, band

    suma (v intr)  smile brightly and warmly, beam

    ŝumí (n, an)  second cousin

    ŝuns (n, inan) a defeat, usually unexpected or sudden

    sus (n, an)  escort; chaperone 

    ŝuŝé (n, inan)  seashell

    ŝuŝu (adj)  engaged, interested; held in rapture 

    ŝuta (n, inan)  kiss 

    ŝutré (n, an) animal

    ŝutrésé (adj) animalistic, animal-like

    ŝutŝa (v tr) allow, let, permit

    ŝûẃa (n, inan)  mix 

    ŝûẃä (adj)  mixed

    ŝûẃé (n, inan)  mixture

    sûxenû (n, an)  god 

    ŝydet (n, inan)  mathematics

    ŝyfet (adv) frequently, often, a lot (of times)

    sylaíxû (n, an) partner, lover, spouse

    ŝyt (n, inan)  number

    ŝyta (pron; adj)  many 

  • T

    ta (n, inan)  face

    ta (num, card)  six 

    taíkon (n, inan) art of making decorative blankets

    taki (v tr)  defeat, overcome

    takóí (adv) that way, in that manner, like that

    tan (adv)  there, in that place

    tañ (dem adj; dem pron)  that

    täñs (n, inan)  doubt, worry, angst, stress

    tanu (num, ord; adj)  sixth 

    täre (adj)  weird, strange

    tär̂ta (n, inan)  tent, canopy

    tas (n, inan)  nation, country

    taŝe (n, inan)  ship

    täsi (v tr)  guard, watch over

    tatan (adj)  enchanted, amazed, stupefied

    taví (n, inan)  testicles

    te (n, inan)  knife 

    tea (v tr)  slice, cut

    teamu (v tr) begrudge; resentE.g. someone's joy, their success, their possessions.

    teasí (n, inan)  violence against a family member or close friend

    téǵé (v tr)  summon, conjure up 

    téíka (n, inan)  snippers, scissors 

    tekéŕanaí (n, inan) black market

    tékuí (n, an) type of bird, bright colors (yellow, green, red, blue)with a large beak

    tele (v tr)  offer

    tem (n, inan)  prayer said over incense in ritual 

    tema (v intr)  feel (+ adj.) (physically)

    tema (n, inan)  thigh

    temala (n, inan) clitoris

    temasé (adj)  sensual, sensuous, relating to the senses

    tenat (n, inan)  honor, truthfulness

    tenepít (adj)  intoxicated, drunk 

    tenepíta (n, inan)  drunkenness

    tenepítra (n, inan) drunkenness, intoxication

    tenepre (n, inan)  storm

    teneprea (v tr)  irritate, aggravate, make worse 

    tepa (n, inan) boob, breastSlang

    tepa (n, inan)  pot

    tepŝir̂û (n, an) con artist, deceiver, professional deceiver

    teŝe (v intr)  hang suspended, be suspended 

    tetíñ (n, inan) bit, part, piece

    teven (adj)  level-headed, rational, reasonable; lucid, sane

    texénsa (n, inan) council, committee, group of people gathered to deliberate or make a decision

    ti (v intr) collect into a pool (of a liquid), pool (together)Used with liquids or mass nouns (rice, leaves, etc.).

    (v tr)  pull

    tí'é (n, inan) apricot

    ti'í (adj)  suspicious, having suspicions

    ti'íra (n, inan)  suspicion 

    tíǵa (n, inan)  memory; intuition

    tíma (v intr/tr) remember, recall

    tímbe (n, inan)  triangle

    timû (v intr)  gamble

    tíósé (v tr) charm, attract, seduce, lure in

    tíóséra (n, inan) allure, charm, attractiveness

    tipöta (n, inan)  support, encouragement

    tiqa (v tr) reach out and grab, stretch out the arm and take (something)

    tir̂ó (v tr) wonder, ask about

    tír̂ó (n, inan)  ink brush

    tir̂u (n, inan)  question

    tísaí (v tr) pull up; pull someone up, pull someone up (to a standing position)Zaítap bí míet a tísaítap tŝuet fadí. 'The girl goes and pulls her brother up.'

    tísû (v intr/tr)  tell, say

    tísunga (adj)  skeptical, discerning; careful 

    títŝó (n, inan) claw; nails

    títŝósé (adj) biting, harsh, abrupt, sharp, mean, brusque, cold (of personality), shrewish

    tízu (n, inan)  stringed instrument, similar to violin

    tjaẃe (adv) understandably, as expected, as you know, naturally, of course, needless to say

    (n, an)  maternal uncle 

    (n, inan) hat; cover; lid for a pot or pan

    tólhu (n, inan) beans

    tönet (n, inan) small flat hat that ties under the chin

    toro (v tr)  notice, pay attention 

    töŝ (n, inan) ash

    tötó (n, inan)  curry made of potatoes

    trabuí (v tr) transfer, relate; translate; send along, send

    trabuín (n, inan)  letter, epistle, written correspondance

    traǵa (v tr) collect, gather, amassE.g. berries, sticks, stones, flowers.

    treló (v intr) sit, sit down

    trelós (n, inan) seat, chair

    tresna (adj)  special, unique; strange, unusual 

    tríe (v intr) adapt, change to suit some environment or situation; shimmy, shake, move in a shaking pattern

    tr̂ím (n, inan)  crystal 

    tr̂isó (n, inan)  groundnuts 

    trófó (v tr) build, construct, create, make (usually physically)

    trófóbuín (n, inan) architecture

    trófóbuínla (n, an) architect

    tróku (n, inan)  pestle 

    tr̂ûlhû (n, inan)  election 

    tŝa (adj)  deep

    tŝaí (adj)  mad, angry, pissed off 

    tŝaísa (v tr)  lighten, ease the burden of someone; put at ease, comfort; reassure 

    tsaluí (n, inan)  soup 

    tsam (n, inan)  minute, moment 

    tŝäní (n, inan)  expression

    tŝarû (n, inan)  refuge 

    tŝata (n, inan; expression)  goodbye 

    tsatsa (n, inan)  mix of spices

    tsäu (n, inan)  shawl, drape 

    tse (n, inan)  stone, rock (as material)

    tsebŭ (n, an)  donkey

    tsepere (n, inan)  marble; stone; white stone 

    tseruxó (v intr) grumble, growl; gripe, complain

    tsíala (v intr)  shine, sparkle

    tsíalasé (adj) sparkling, shiny

    tŝika (n, inan) collar bone

    tsilŭ (v intr) sneeze

    tŝimlha (v tr)  make mushy, squash 

    tŝimlhû (n, inan)  mash, mush, goo, squishy stuff 

    tsín (n, inan) cloth, fabric, material

    tsínä (adj)  intrigued, fascinated, interestedImi tsínä pa sé desukala. 'I'm fascinated this song'

    tŝíntŭ (n, inan) chalk; calcium

    tsitsaí (n, inan)  sound of rain (on a roof, etc.) 

    tsíu (v intr)  squeal 

    tŝóä (n, inan) something that’s been fished out

    tŝóí (v tr)  fish for, look for

    tŝóía (v tr)  expect, anticipate

    tŝöna (v intr) choke, cough on something

    tsŭ (n, inan) buttocks

    tŝu (n, an) biological brother

    tŝu (adj)  fresh, clean 

    tŝudí (n, an) species of amphibian with greenish wrinkly skin, similar body shape to a salamander, with small black claws

    tŝuǵe (n, inan)  pestle

    tŝuji (n, inan) age, degree of one's maturity

    tsukaí (n, an)  thief; liar

    tsun (n, inan) chasm; crack

    tsunsé (adj) abyssal; wide, massive, deep; of or relating to a chasm; overwhelmingly immense

    tŝuŝ (n, an) bitch, assholevulgar slang, term of abuse.

    tsutla (n, inan)  syrup from fruit or tree sap 

    tsy (adj)  real

    tŝyéjû (v tr)  disturb, bother 

    tu (n, inan)  form, shape, appearance

    (n, inan)  story, fable, tale 

    (v intr) go down, descend

    (v tr)  do, act

    tŭa (v intr/tr) recite, tell a story

    tûfa (n, inan)  ritual

    tûmlaí (adj)  surprised

    tûmu (v intr) bow, genuflect

    tŭní (n, inan)  storytelling 

    tuŕa (v intr) play, frolic, have fun, enjoy oneself

    ture (adj)  slow, gentle, soft

    tuŕéí (n, inan)  toy, plaything 

    tŭs (adv) down

    tûŝana (v intr)  perform a ritual

    tûso (v tr)  mix together, stir up; bring together 

    tusunä (n, inan)  resignation, acceptance 

    tŭsvilä (v intr) dive, plunge

    tŭtaí (adj)  emotionally sensitive 

    tuvésaraí (adj)  scrambled, distorted, mixed up, messed up

    tyí (n, inan) flower; larger flowerThis is compared with mea, which is any sort of flower of a smaller sizeTañ tyí karilo a biŝé 'That flower is lovely and bright'

    tyíke (n, inan)  ribbon

    tyís (n, inan)  grain mash

    tyña (v intr) fart

    tyñek (adj)  incensed, inflamed, fiery-tongued

    tysó (n, inan)  spear 

  • U

    u (prep)  with 

    ŭ (expression)  yeah, yesMore informal than ŭsŭ or hely.

    uekí (adj)  good, cool, nice, fun 

    ûfa (prep) under, underneath, below

    uga (n, inan)  dough 

    uǵa (n, inan)  disdain 

    uka (n, an) companion, partner, friend, comrade

    ŭku (adv)  forward 

    ula (v tr) carry (something) on the shoulder or shoulders

    uła (n, an)  old woman 

    uló (n, inan)  shoulder

    umaé (adj) comfortable, pleasing

    ûmatŝŭ (n, inan)  straw, hay

    umuísû (n, an)  daughter

    ûn (n, inan)  oil 

    ûñ (n, inan)  oil

    uña (adj) backward; wrong, weird, strange

    uñaŝó (adj) backwards

    ûnde (n, an)  host

    ûnderŭ (n, inan) code of honor between host and guest

    ûnesä (n, inan) sculpture

    ûnese (v tr)  sculpt 

    ûnesela (n, an) sculptor

    ûnesera (n, inan) sculpting, sculpture as an art

    ŭñge (n, inan)  esophagus

    unhe (n, inan) calf of the leg

    ûñra (n, inan)  egg

    ŭnûlû (adj) awkward, unfortunate; strange, bizarre; wrong, funny

    uq (n, an)  pig 

    uqa (n, an)  piglet

    uränû (n, an) queen

    uränû (n, an)  woman of high importance

    ure (n, inan)  employment, job

    ŭŕû (n, inan) barley porridge

    urun (n, inan) agony, anguish

    ûŝ (adj)  flat 

    ûŝa (n, inan)  plaque, plate, flat surface

    ûŝaím (n, inan)  table 

    ûŝar̂ek (n, inan)  hard palate of the mouth

    ûŝature (n, inan)  velum, soft palate

    use (adj)  okay, not bad, acceptableSlang.

    useŵedía (v intr)  defend oneself, fight back 

    ûŝmé (v tr)  flatten

    ûŝó (adv) down

    ŭŝtû (adj)  discontent, dissatisfied, restless, frustrated

    ŭsŭ (expression, discourse marker, adv)  yes

    ûtû (n, inan)  deed, act, action

    ûtû (n, inan)  egg

    ûtûdó (n, inan) conduct, behaviour

    utûs (n, an)  spouse

    ûtûs (n, inan) verb

    uwa (v tr)  meet, touch, join, come together with

    uxa (n, inan) awe

  • V

    va (n, inan) corset, tight form of bodice

    va'íns (n, inan) creeping fear, dread, silent terror

    väkŝ (n, inan)  cuticle of the fingernail 

    väky (n, inan) aim; direction, pointing

    väle (n, inan) flag, banner

    väsû (v intr) aim (a weapon); point toward; turn in the direction of

    vató (n, inan) jade

    vatóí (adj)  jade green

    vazi (v tr) jot down, write down quicklyVazidap fípšó ba yníänet famu šydapen kólle. ‘She quickly jotted down which of his belongings were muddy.’

    ve (adj)  unfortunate, unhappy

    (n, inan)  light 

    vega (v intr)  happen, occur

    vegaky (n, inan) happening, event, occurrence

    véja (v intr) light up, brighten

    veka (n, an) contact, ally

    vélhes (adj)  timid, shy 

    vemrí (adj)  voracious, ravenous 

    vepa (n, inan)  glassblowing

    vepala (n, an) glassblower, glassworker

    verí (adj)  permanent

    verídó (n, inan) permanence

    ves (adj)  crazy, insane

    vesara (n, inan) chaos, disorder

    vesje (adj) chaotic, unpredictable

    veske (adj)  crazy, insane 

    veskesa (n, inan)  insanity, madness; criminal insanity

    veŝó (adv) unfortunately, sadly

    vésót (n, inan)  treasure 

    (n, an)  entity, being

    vilu (n, inan)  mask

    vín (adj)  precious, priceless

    vis (adj)  false, fake

    víse (n, inan)  jewels and beads used in making decorative blankets

    vixadelós (n, inan) statement that is apparently said in jest or as a joke but is actually sincerely meantLiterally, a false joke.- Gan xadelósasap, imi ét. - Ŝydap vixadelós. Kódap tañet. 'But she was joking, I'm sure.' 'It was a vixadelós. She meant it'

    vízaíla (n, inan)  ovaries 

    vizuña (adj) angry, mad, upset

    (v tr)  hear

    vóha (n, inan)  ear

    vóí (n, inan)  globe, sphere, ball 

    vóla (v tr)  hire 

    vóni (v intr)  mumble, murmur

    vór̂ (n, inan)  decision 

    vór̂a (v intr)  decide 

    vózi (n, inan)  lance

    vu (v intr/tr) pass, progress, go, continue

    vu (conj) as soon as, once (that)

    vułe (v tr)  pass through, pass by 

    vy (art, part) somePartitive article; comes in singular vy and plural vyn; must agree with head noun.

    vym (adj)  punctual, on time; fast 

  • W

    wa (v intr)  stretch out (oneself), stretch out the limbs/body

    ẃa (n, inan)  spring wind 

    ŵa (n, inan) air

    ŵa (n, inan)  energy

    ŵa (adv)  yet, although 

    ŵä (adj) blad, flat, boring

    ŵadó (n, inan) atmosphere (meteorological)

    ŵaés (n, inan) cold gust of wind; burst of cold air; cold winds of winter

    ẃaky (n, inan)  weather

    ẃala (n, inan)  windpipe 

    ẃalhé (adj, adv) next

    wan (n, inan)  half

    ŵan (n, inan; adv) east, eastwards, to the east, toward the east

    wanalóma (v intr)  vote 

    ẃasma (n, inan) cavern, particular passage or open area in cave (as opposed to the whole cave system)

    ŵata (v intr) blow (said of wind); be windy

    watu (v intr) sit down roughly or suddenly, flop down

    ẃe (n, inan)  cream

    wéba (v intr) get to one's feet, stand up, rise to one's feet; pay attention; stand at attentionWébaky! 'On your feet!'

    wébaxa (v tr) order (someone) to stand)Wébaxaky faet, berebu! 'Please order him to stand!'

    ẃébû (n, inan)  husk corn 

    ŵébûla (n, an) cornhusker, one who husks corncobs

    wébym (n, inan)  toe

    ŵedí (n, inan)  sin, corruption, crime, wrongdoing; big, stupid mistake

    ŵeǵewa (n, inan)  entrails, viscera, intestines, guts 

    wén (n, inan) hook, barb, fishing hook

    wéna (v tr) hook (something), use a hook to catch fish

    ŵere (n, inan)  incense

    ŵereón (n, inan)  incense holder

    weró (n, inan)  skirt 

    wes (adj)  short (in length) 

    ẃeŝ (n, inan)  depression

    wesa (v tr)  hold; contain

    ŵesa (n, inan)  cumulus cloud

    wesala (n, inan)  vase

    wesaŕyla (n, inan)  tonsil

    ẃése (v intr)  wave 

    ŵeta (n, inan) the rest, leftovers, remnants, remainder

    ŵetse (n, inan) chalcedony

    ẃí (v intr) whistle; making a whistling sound

    ẃí (quant pron, adj)  some, a few, a portion of 

    ẃíla (n, inan) whilstle, thing that whistles

    ẃilhu (v tr) turn over, flip over, reverse

    ẃínadin (n, inan) moral support, encouragement; help, support, aid

    ẃínadinla (n, an) supporter; confidante; close friend or ally; aide, assistant

    wíntra (n, inan)  elbow

    ŵip (n, inan) small carttypically pulled by a person

    ẃítí (n, inan)  stability

    ẃítíxo (adj)  stable 

    ẃó (n, inan)  needle 

    ŵö (adj)  new 

    ŵóka (n, inan) tête-à-tête, close personal conversation or discussion, heart-to-heart

    ŵólí (v tr) exhaust, tire, drain of energy; waste

    ŵólíle (v intr) be tired, exhausted, drained

    ẃónu (n, inan)  hull, husk, shell (of seed, etc.)

    ŵoq (n, inan) boulder, large rock, large stone

    ŵoqsé (adj) huge, heavy, boulder-like

    ẃóra (v intr)  waste away

    ŵösín (n, inan)  earlobe

    ŵötuí (v tr)  transform, change

    ẃötuílhyntí (n, inan) magic

    ŵu (v intr) must, have to, be obligated to

    ŵunaí (n, an)  drain 

    ŵŭñi (adv, discourse marker) in fact, actually, “you appeared not to know” (sometimes used sarcastically)

    wunís (n, inan) breath

    wunísa (v intr) breathe

    ŵy (adj)  small

    ẃyba (n, an) read; decipher, decode

    ŵybu (n, inan)  letter (of the alphabet)

    ŵyfílu (n, inan)  uvula 

    ẃyí (n, inan)  feather

    wyky (n, inan)  sexual intercourse

    ŵyní (n, inan)  little/pinky finger 

    ẃypó (n, an) kid, kiddoslang

    ẃyŝó (adv) unfortunately, sadly

    wyta (adj)  well-off, financially comfortable 

  • X

    xa (adj)  strong

    xaba (pron)  everything

    xadelós (n, inan) joke; amusement

    xadelósa (v intr) make a joke

    xahyzû (adj)  superfluous, surplus, extra 

    xaíre (v tr)  turn in, render up, give

    xaís (n, inan)  sound, noise

    xajen (adv)  everyday

    xala (pron)  everyone, everybody

    xalaí (v tr) bring, make come, cause to approach

    xalhö (adv)  everywhere

    xaluí (adj) opulent, exquisite

    xaluídó (n, inan) opulence, riches; hedonism; extreme or excessive luxury

    xamŭlhi (n, inan) bronze

    xan (adv, pron) all

    xanaí (adv)  everywhere

    xanó (adv)  everyday

    xaraxaí (v intr)  give birth, have a baby

    xaŕe (v tr)  crush, smash, break down

    xaŕeku (n, inan)  molar

    xaŕetse (v intr) challenge a court ruling; go against a rule, break a tradition

    xastŭ (adj)  incapable; impotent; immobalized, hindered

    xaŝŵö (v intr/tr)  plunder, steal, raid 

    xaẃé (n, inan)  strong wind 

    xazaí (adv) all the time, every time; forever, always; eternally

    xazaí (adv)  forever, always

    xazaíta (v tr)  leave, abandon

    xazaryxía (v tr)  renounce, reject, refuse, give up, abandon

    xeñ (n, inan)  curl, reflexed position

    xes (n, an)  man, adult male person 

    xeska (v tr)  touch sexually 

    xewin (n, inan) comb

    xexeru (n, inan)  massacre 

    xíǵilû (adj) wild, crazy, crazed, unpredictable

    xis (n, inan) valley

    xoa (v intr) rule, reign

    xoaky (n, inan) rule, reign, period of a monarch's rule

    xoala (n, an) ruler, leader

    xódín (n, inan)  port, dock 

    xólaqé (n, inan)  mistake 

    xólaqégala (n, an) someone who makes you feel stupid/angry at them because they inadvertently made you make a mistake or act out of turn (e.g. lose one’s temper, say something stupid).

    xómä (n, inan)  wrench 

    xömma (n, inan) butt, assslang

    xonaru (adj) horrible, terrible, very bad

    xorän (n, inan) house, clan, family, relatives

    xoru (adj)  dominant 

    xorudó (n, inan) dominance; rule over some other

    xós (n, inan)  decree, announcement

    xöxör̂ (n, inan)  war; conflict 

    xûlhäs (n, inan) adjective

    xŭn faban (adj)  shitty, bad (literally ‘clothed in shit’ or ‘shit clothes’) Vulgar slang.

    xuns (adj)  wide

    xunsdó (n, inan)  width

    xûs (interr pron; rel pron)  how (what attributes)

    xuseku (n, inan)  incisor tooth 

    xusó (v tr)  slice up, cut into pieces

    xûtmä (n, inan)  kind, type, sort 

    xyfaí (n, inan) bonus, surplus, extra benefit

    xyvé (n, inan) side, edge, boundary, lateral section

    xyvéka (n, inan) side of the head (of a person or animal)

    xyvésé (adj) lateral, of the side

  • Y

    yízo (n, inan)  edible root 

    ymí (n, inan) blink, blink of an eye

    yní (v tr)  own, possess; control

    yníä (n, inan) possession, owned item

    ynji (n, inan) bud of a flower

    ynu (adv)  very, really

    yẃäp (n, inan) city

    yẃäpsé (adj) municipal, related to a city or town

  • Z

    za (n, an)  prostitute

    zaǵa (v intr) chew

    zaǵen (n, inan)  jaw 

    zaí (v intr) go

    zaí (v intr)  go, move 

    zaíla (n, an) prince

    zaílí (n, inan)  genitalia

    zaímyí (v intr) glide

    zaín (n, inan)  time 

    zaína (v tr)  delay

    zaínta (n, inan) clock

    zaíra (n, inan)  movement, action

    zaíta (v intr)  go away, go out, leave 

    zaíŵy (n, inan)  hour 

    zaíŵyí (adj)  temporary, non-permanent

    zaké (n, inan)  status, position

    zaky (n, inan)  ink

    zaña (n, inan)  sickle; shape of the moon; the moon 

    zanre (n, inan)  suicide

    zanresé (adj)  suicidal

    zansa (v tr)  kill 

    zäŕe (v tr)  open 

    zäŕele (v intr) open

    zäŕesé (adj) public, open, disclosed

    zarysé (adj)  rusty 

    zaryxí (n, inan)  rust 

    zatuí (adv)  immediately, right away

    zazem (n, inan)  ink pot 

    zéí (v tr)  offer, present

    zer̂ (adj)  dry 

    zer̂a (v intr)  dry up, waste away, shrivel up 

    zíje (n, inan)  fruit

    zikö (adj) around, encircling, surrounding

    zíleñ (n, inan) frill; decoration for clothing or jewelry

    zínuŝ (n, inan)  social transgression, spiritual/philosophical crime 

    zíru (n, inan)  snake

    zisa (num, card)  nine 

    zísälí (adj) thrifty, economical

    zisanu (num, ord; adj)  ninth 

    zít (n, an) servant

    (adj)  trust, confidence in others 

    zofa (adj) bridled, caged, trapped, harnessed, tamed (against one's will)

    zösé (adj)  trustworthyGómalim kó fa zösé 'I believe that they are trustworthy'

    zöséra (n, inan) trustworthinessJûítap fau pa zösérala 'She doubts his trustworthiness'

    zötqa (adj)  weirdFa la ynu zötqa 'She is a very weird person'

    zöxo (adj)  trustingBe xazaí bíqû zöxoda 'It is not always a bad thing to be trusting'

    zu (adj)  long (spacially) Zíru zu lä? 'Is the snake long?'

    zu (prep)  under Zu ółézala lentí imidí 'My dog is under a table'

    (n, inan)  right (direction)Zaíky kó zûla 'Go to the right'

    zuí (n, inan)  moon Ynu biŝé zuí sébän 'The moon is very bright tonight'

    zuíqafím (n, inan) crescent shapeTeaky apenet kó zuíqafimenla 'Cut them into crescent shapes'

    zuk (adj)  weak, feebleBe zuk imi! 'I am not weak!'

    zula (v tr)  loan Zuladap zítet fadí 'She loaned out her servant'

    zûlik (n, inan)  strapFa sé kei zûliken ó sé

    zuñû (n, inan)  nail (pointy fastener)Naŝylap tsuet imidí kse zuñûnet 'My brother knows how to make nails'

    zy (v tr) seal, close, shut, lock; finalizeZydapen bí ätŝuet 'They sealed the agreement'

    zynä (adj)  simple, straightforward, uncomplicatedBe ŝydap zynä tañ kŭnä. 'That matter was not simple'