Tosi Phonology


Labial Labio-
Alveolar Post-
Palatal Velar
Stop p b   t d t ʃ d ʒ k g
Nasal m   n     ŋ
Fricative   f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ
Approximate w       j  
Lateral Approximate     l      
Trill     r      


a o i u e
aː oː iː uː eː

Vowel & Consonant Structure

  • CVC is the overwhelmingly most common structure
  • CV is 2nd most common
  • CVCV is 3rd most common
  • VC is 4th most common
  • VCVC is 5th most common

No initial or final consonant clusters besides b/d/g/p/t/k + r, which are only initial.

Stress Rules

2 syllables: stress is on the 2nd syllable unless the vowel in the first syllable is long. There are several exceptions: olu, elo, oki, zadax


e → [ɛ] / C_C
i → [ɪ] / C_C